In December 1925, months after Persia placed a three-year ban on the haj because of tribal war in Hijaz, Reza Khan established the Pahlavi dynasty and became Reza Shah. Abd al-Aziz sent a message congratulating him, and vowed to protect Persian pilgrims.1 As Persia did not recognize Abd al-Aziz’s newly established Kingdom of Najd and Hijaz, Reza Shah was advised not to send a formal reply. He decided to maintain communications with the new ruler of Hijaz, under pressure from Shi’i clerics who wished to resume the haj despite their opposition to the Wahhabi takeover of Makkah and Madinah. A delegation was sent to Hijaz to thank Abd al-Aziz, and to stress that Persia wished to maintain close ties with the government of Hijaz.2
KeywordsSaudi Arabia Arab World Arab State Jewish State National Front
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