Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Levant Geopolitics: The Cases of Lebanon, Syria, Palestine

  • Banafsheh Keynoush


In 1992, while still viewed by Washington as a terrorist group, Hizbullah won 12 seats in the Lebanese parliament after vowing to free occupied Lebanese territories from Israel. Hizbullah received substantial aid from Iran as well as Syrian support to build an armed front against Israel. By May 2000, Israel had announced that it would withdraw its troops from southern Lebanon after an occupation of almost 20 years. The withdrawal offered Iran and Syria new opportunities to influence Lebanon. However, after Iraq’s 2003 invasion, the US administration under President George W. Bush decided that Syria, which sabotaged US operations in Iraq by granting a safe haven to ex-Baathists and Iraqi terrorists, should withdraw from Lebanon. By containing Syria, Washington also aimed to control Hizbullah and Iranian actions in Lebanon.


European Union Saudi Arabia Security Council Arab World Foreign Minister 
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  1. 4.
    Frederic Wehrey, Theodore W. Karasik, Alireza Nader, Jeremy Ghez, Lydia Hansell, Robert A. Guffey, Saudi—Iranian Relations since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation, and Implications for U.S. Policy (RAND: National Security Research Division, 2009), pp. 27Google Scholar

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© Banafsheh Keynoush 2016

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  • Banafsheh Keynoush

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