Advertisement

How Foreign Is the Kurdish Issue in Iran’s Foreign Policy?

  • Costas Laoutides

Abstract

The evolution of the Kurdish political agenda in Iraq, Turkey, and Syria has refueled the discussion about the future of the Kurds in the Middle East. The prospect of an independent Kurdish state in Iraq along with the creation of a Kurdish enclave in Syria and the ongoing unofficial peace talks between Kurds in Turkey and the Turkish government has generated a number of challenges for Iran, which has its own share of Kurdish grievance and mobilization. This jigsaw puzzle has become more perplexed by the presence ofthe Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) group in parts of Syria and Iraq, which poses a major security threat to the region’s populations.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Middle East Free Trade Zone Peace Talk Kurdish Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Donald Wilber, Riza Shah Pahlavi: The Resurrection and Reconstruction of Iran: 1878–1944 (Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1975), 261–62Google Scholar
  2. David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004), 222–26.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Martin Van Bruineseen, “Kurdish Tribes and the State of Iran: the Case of Simko’s Revolt,” in The Conflict of Tribe and State in Iran and Afghanistan, ed. Richard Tapper (London: Croom Helm, 1983), 364–80Google Scholar
  4. Farideh Koohi-Kamali, “The Development of Nationalism in Iranian Kurdistan,” in The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, ed. Phillip G. Kreyenbroek et al. (London: Routledge, 1992), 175Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    William Eagleton, The Kurdish Republic of 1946 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963)Google Scholar
  6. Archie Roosevelt Jr., “The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad,” in A People without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan, ed. Gerard Chaliand (London: Zed Press, 1980), 135–152.Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    Alim Ansari, The Politics ofNationalism in Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 120–21.Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    Abbas Vali, Kurds and the State in Iran: The Making of Kurdish Identity (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011), 20–24Google Scholar
  9. Farideh Koohi-Kamali, The Political Development of the Kurds in Iran: Pastoral Nationalism (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 8.
    Edgar O’Balance, The Kurdish Struggle, 1920–1994 (London: Macmillan Press 1996), 108–14.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rasmus Christian Elling, Minorities in Iran: Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini (London: Routledge, 2013), 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin Van Bruinessen, “The Kurds between Iran and Iraq,” MERIP Middle East Report, 141 (1986): 22.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Gareth Stansfield, “Kurds, Persian Nationalism, and Shi’a Rule: Surviving Dominant Nationhood in Iran,” in Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, ed. David Romanoetal. (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 75Google Scholar
  14. Jonathan C. Randal, Kurdistan. After Such Knowledge, What Forgiveness? (Oxford: Westview Press, 1999), 317.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Denise Natalie, The Kurds and the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2005), 153Google Scholar
  16. Ali Mozaffari, Forming National Identity in Iran: The Idea of Homeland Derived From Ancient Persian and Islamic Imaginations of Place (London: I.B. Tauris, 2014), 202.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Nader Entessar, “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Kurdish Dilemma in Iran,” in Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, ed. David Romano et al. (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 214.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Elling, Minorities in Iran, 58; Nader Entessar, Kurdish Politics in the Middle East (New York: Lexington Books 2010), 56.Google Scholar
  19. 22.
    Hashem Ahmadzadeh and Gareth Stansfield, “The Political, Cultural, and Military Re-Awakening of the Kurdish Nationalist Movement in Iran,” The Middle East Journal 64 (2010): 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 25.
    Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 2nd edition (Berkeley: University of California Press 2000), 287.Google Scholar
  21. 27.
    Matteo Legrenzi and Fred H. Lawson, “Iran and its Neighbours since 2003: New Dilemmas,” Middle East Policy XXI (2014): 106.Google Scholar
  22. 29.
    Joseph Nye, Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Basic Books, 1990)Google Scholar
  23. Joseph Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs 2004)Google Scholar
  24. Laura Roselle, Alister Miskimmon and Ben O’Loughlin, “Strategic Narrative: A New Means to Understand Soft Power.” Media, War and Conflict, 7 (2014): 70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Alister Miskimmon, Ben O’Loughlin and Laura Roselle, Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order (New York: Routledge, 2013).Google Scholar
  26. 30.
    Mohammad Khatami, Islam, Dialogue and Civil Society(Canberra: Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, Australian National University, 2000), 2.Google Scholar
  27. 32.
    Thomas Jouneau, “Iran under Rouhani: Still Alone in the World,” Middle East Policy, XXI (2014): 97.Google Scholar
  28. 37.
    Mohammad Javad Zarif, “What Iran Really Wants: Iranian Foreign Policy in the Rouhani Era,” Foreign Affairs, 93 (2014): 55–56.Google Scholar
  29. 45.
    Suzanne Maloney, “Identity and Change in Iran’s Foreign Policy,” in Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East, ed. Shibley Telhami et al. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), 92–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Costas Laoutides 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Costas Laoutides

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations