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Bringing Everyone to Trogen: UNESCO and the Promotion of an International Model of Children’s Communities after World War II

  • Samuel Boussion
  • Mathias Gardet
  • Martine Ruchat

Abstract

The end of World War II gave rise to a number of communities of child war victims in France, Greece, Italy and Switzerland. The communities were more than a material link — they were an idea and a spirit that became popular in the post-war era. They belonged to an educational tradition in which the child was the center of an education that needed to be adapted to their needs — in other words, the spirit of new education. They also belonged to what was sometimes called the “spirit of Geneva”: liberalism, pacifism and internationalism around the League of Nations.1

Keywords

Refugee Child National House Homeless Child International Bureau International Understanding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Martine Ruchat, “Entre militance et science: la cause des enfants anormaux à l’Institut J-J. Rousseau, 1912–1933”, Les Sciences de l’éducation. Pour l’ère nouvelle, CERSE-Université de Caen 35:4 (2002): 63–84.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chloé Maurel, Histoire de l’UNESCO, les trente premières années, 1945–75 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2010), 218.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thérèse Brosse, Homeless Children (Paris: UNESCO, 1950), 26.Google Scholar
  4. 16.
    Simone Marcus, Pour comprendre les enfants (Paris: Bourrelier et Cie, 1947), 3 and Pascale Le Maléfan, “Rencontre avec Simone Blajan-Marcus”, Bulletin Marionnette et Thérapie 4 (1995): 8–10.Google Scholar
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    Simone Marcus-Jeisler, “Réponse à l’enquête sur les effets psychologiques de la guerre”, Sauvegarde 8 (February 1947): 4.Google Scholar
  6. 20.
    In 1895 the industrialist William Reuben George (1866–1936) founded the George Junior Republic in Freeville, a small town near Ithaca (New York), and 20 years later the Irish-born priest Edward J. Flanagan founded Boys Town in Omaha (Nebraska). See Mathias Gardet, “Freeville et Boys Town: de la fascination à l’oubli. Les deux modèles américains précurseurs des républiques d’enfants”, paper, ISCHE, 2012. The children’s villages at Ben-Shemen and Kfar Yeladim in Palestine were founded in the 1920s. See Dr Siegfried Lehmann, “Le village d’enfants de Benschemen”, Pour l’ère nouvelle 66 (March 1931); Fedi Laurent and Yaffa Wolfman, “Kfar-Yeladim ou le village des enfants: l’expérience pionnière de Pougatchev en Eretz-Israël, vue par Joseph Kessel (1926)”, Le Télémaque 2:32 (2007): 137–148.Google Scholar
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    Adolphe Ferrière, L’autonomie des écoliers dans les communautés d enfants (Geneva: Delachaux and Niestlé, 1950).Google Scholar
  8. 31.
    Carole Naggar, Chim. Children of War (New York: Umbrage editions, 2013); Cynthia Young, Chim: We Went Back. Photographs from Europe 1933–1956 (New York: Barnas, 2013).Google Scholar
  9. 32.
    David Niget, “Pieds nus dans les ruines: le regard de Chim sur les enfants de la Guerre”, Revue d’histoire de l’enfance “irrégulière” 15 (2013): 143–145.Google Scholar
  10. 33.
    Thérèse Brosse, War Handicapped Children. Report on the European Situation (Paris: UNESCO, 1950), 12, 14.Google Scholar
  11. 38.
    Arthur Bill, “Self-Government and Community in the National Houses of the Pestalozzi Children’s Village”, The New Era in Home and School 29:8 (September–October 1948):182–183.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Samuel Boussion, Mathias Gardet and Martine Ruchat 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Boussion
  • Mathias Gardet
  • Martine Ruchat

There are no affiliations available

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