Reconciliation and Its Failures: Reconstruction to Jim Crow

  • George R. Goethals
Part of the Jepson Studies in Leadership book series (JSL)


As Abraham Lincoln and the federal government groped their way toward the end of the Civil War in early 1865, the shape of the postwar nation challenged and divided America’s leaders. Under what terms would the seceding states be brought back into their “practical relation with the Union?” (McPherson 1988, 770). Would the former leaders of those states be allowed a role in governing them once they had been returned to the Union? Would the Constitution be amended to remove its implicit but unequivocal protections of slavery? If emancipated, what would become of former enslaved persons now known as “freedmen”? Would they have equal citizenship? Would they be educated? Could they own land? Could they serve on juries? Could they vote? What laws and regulations would govern their labor?


Republican Party Popular Vote Fourteenth Amendment Field Order Black Vote 
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© George R. Goethals 2016

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  • George R. Goethals

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