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Breivik in a Comparative Perspective

  • Cato Hemmingby
  • Tore Bjørgo
Chapter
  • 495 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)

Abstract

Breivik was a unique solo terrorist in some ways, but also average in some other respects. To clarify the distinctions and similarities between Breivik and other solo terrorists, a comparative assessment is conducted. After a definitional elaboration, the chapter provides comparisons in a number of areas. The challenges with regard to detection and the limitations of the intelligence driven approach is also addressed.

Keywords

creativity definitions detection innovation intelligence lethality lone wolf mass casualty resilience societal security solo terrorist strategy weapons 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    For books covering solo terrorist or lone actor terrorism see Spaaij, R. (2012). Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism. London: Springer;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Simon, J.D. (2013). Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. Prometheus books;Google Scholar
  3. Gill, P. (2015). Lone-Actor terrorists. A Behavioural Analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    This is extensively covered in Schmid, A.P. (ed. 2011). The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. S.39 and Appendix 2. 1. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. See also English, R. (2009). Terrorism-How to Respond. Oxford: Oxford University Press;Google Scholar
  6. Crenshaw, M. (2011). Explaining Terrorism. London: Routledge;Google Scholar
  7. Lia, B. (2005). The Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. 4.
    Daily Mail (2013). Terrifying bomb arsenal of the would be Breivik who “killed his own mother when she found out about plan to blow up Polish parliament”.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Der Spiegel (2011). Attentat in Norwegen: Verfassungsschutz warnt vor Breivik Nachahmern.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Der Spiegel (2006). Karikaturen-Streit: Pakistaner verbrennen deutsche Flagge.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    Dansk Radio (2014). Fakta: Det ved vi om Lars Hedegaards formodede attentatmand.Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    BBC News (2013). Mosque bomber Pavlo Lapshyn given life for murder.Google Scholar
  13. 28.
    On this subject in general, see also Wilkinson, Paul (ed. 1993). Technology and Terrorism. London: Frank Cass;Google Scholar
  14. Ranstorp, M. & Normark, M. (2015). Understanding Terrorism Innovation and Learning. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. 36.
    Astrup, S. & Herschend, S.S. (2012) Ny anklage: Tiltalte planlagde juleterror. Politiken.Google Scholar
  16. 40.
    DR (2014). Fakta: Det ved vi om Lars Hedegaards formodede attentatmand.Google Scholar
  17. 41.
    Jyllands-posten (2015). Fakta: Det ved vi nu om skyderierne i København.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cato Hemmingby and Tore Bjørgo 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cato Hemmingby
    • 1
  • Tore Bjørgo
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian Police University CollegeNorway

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