Getting the Customer Involved

  • Hubert Gatignon
  • David Gotteland
  • Christophe Haon


Chapter 4 provided a discussion of organizations that are customer oriented, which involves information gathering, analysis, and dissemination across the organization. Such efforts are critical for the success of the firm, both generally and through the creation of successful new products and services. The question addressed in this chapter instead pertains to the value of involving the customer directly in the process that leads to such innovation. Getting the customer involved in the innovation process is consistent with theories in organizational behavior that suggest the interactions between the firm and its external environment determine the firm’s performance. An open innovation model also has been suggested (Chesbrough 2003), in which firms use “a wide range of external actors and sources to help them achieve and sustain innovation” (Laursen and Salter 2006, p. 131). In this sense, customers are key actors in the firm’s external environment, and the extent to which a product satisfies customers’ needs is a main driver of innovation success (Henard and Szymanski 2001).


Innovation Process Mass Customization Strategic Management Journal Strategic Orientation Innovation Success 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamczyk, Sabrina, Angelica C. Bullinger, and Kathrin M. Möslein (2010), “Call for Attention — Attracting and Activating Innovators,” Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference, Manchester.Google Scholar
  2. Adamczyk, Sabrina, Angelika C. Bullinger, and Kathrin M. Möslein (2012), “Innovation Contests: A Review, Classification and Outlook,” Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(4), 335–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amabile, Teresa M. (1983), “The Social Psychology of Creativity: A Componential Conceptualization,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ancona, Deborah G., and David F. Caldwell (1992), “Bridging the Boundary: External Activity and Performance in Organizational Teams,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(4), 634–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora, Neeraj, Xavier Dreze, Anindya Ghose, James D. Hess, Raghuram Iyengar, Bing Jing, Yogesh Joshi, V. Kumar, Nicholas Lurie, Scott Neslin, S. Sajeesh, Meng Su, Niladri Syam, Jacquelyn Thomas, and Z. John Zhang (2008), “Putting One-to-One Marketing to Work: Personalization, Customization, and Choice,” Marketing Letters, 19(3–4), 305–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baas, Matthijs, Carsten K. W. De Dreu, and Bernard A. Nijstad (2008), “A MetaAnalysis of 25 Years of Mood-Creativity Research: Hedonic Tone, Activation, or Regulatory Focus?,” Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belz, Frank-Martin, and Wenke Baumbach (2010), “Netnography as a Method of Lead User Identification,” Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(3), 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendapudi, Neeli, and Robert P. Leone (2003), “Psychological Implications of Customer Participation in Co-Production,” Journal of Marketing, 67(1), 14–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonner, Joseph M., and Orville C. Walker (2004), “Selecting Influential Business-to-Business Customers in New Product Development: Relational Embeddedness and Knowledge Heterogeneity Considerations,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(3), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boudreau, Kevin J., Nicola Lacetera, and Karim R. Lakhani (2011), “Incentives and Problem Uncertainty in Innovation Contests: An Empirical Analysis,” Management Science, 57(5), 843–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, John Seely, and Paul Duguid (2001), “Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective,” Organization science, 12(2), 198–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burroughs, James E., and David Glen Mick (2004), “Exploring Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Creativity in a Problem-Solving Context,” Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 402–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Byron, Kristin, Shalini Khazanchi, and Deborah Nazarian (2010), “The Relationship between Stressors and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis Examining Competing Theoretical Models,” The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlile, Paul R. (2002), “A Pragmatic View of Knowledge and Boundaries: Boundary Objects in New Product Development,” Organization Science, 13(4), 442–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlile, Paul R. (2004), “Transferring, Translating, and Transforming: An Integrative Framework for Managing Knowledge across Boundaries,” Organization Science, 15(5), 555–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlile, Paul R., and Eric S. Rebentisch (2003), “Into the Black Box: The Knowledge Transformation Cycle,” Management Science, 49(9), 1180–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan, Kimmy Wa, Chi Kin (Bennett) Yim, and Simon S. K. Lam (2010), “Is Customer Participation in Value Creation a Double-Edged Sword? Evidence from Professional Financial Services across Cultures,” Journal of Marketing, 74(3), 48–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chesbrough, Henry W. (2003), “The Era of Open Innovation,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 127(3), 35–41.Google Scholar
  19. Christensen, Clayton M., and Joseph L. Bower (1996), “Customer Power, Strategic Investment, and the Failure of Leading Firms,” Strategic Management Journal, 17(3), 197–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, Kim B. (1989), “Project Scope and Project Performance: The Effect of Parts Strategy and Supplier Involvement on Product Development,” Management Science, 35(10), 1247–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, Wesley M., and Daniel A. Levinthal (1990), “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coviello, Nicole E., and Richard M. Joseph (2012), “Creating Major Innovations with Customers: Insights from Small and Young Technology Firms,” Journal of Marketing, 76(6), 87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dahl, Darren W., and Page Moreau (2002), “The Influence and Value of Analogical Thinking during New Product Ideation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 39(1), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dahl, Darren W., and C. Page Moreau (2007), “Thinking Inside the Box: Why Consumers Enjoy Constrained Creative Experiences,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44(3), 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, Mark A. (2009), “Understanding the Relationship between Mood and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dellaert, Benedict G.C., and Stefan Stremersch (2005), “Marketing Mass-Customized Products: Striking a Balance between Utility and Complexity,” Journal of Marketing Research, 42(2), 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dougherty, Deborah (1992a), “A Practice-Centered Model of Organizational Renewal through Product Innovation,” Strategic Management Journal, 13(S1), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dougherty, Deborah (1992b), “Interpretive Barriers to Successful Product Innovation in Large Firms,” Organization Science, 3(2), 179–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Droge, Cornelia, Michael A. Stanko, and Wesley A. Pollitte (2010), “Lead Users and Early Adopters on the Web: The Role of New Technology Product Blogs,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(1), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebner, Winfried, Jan Marco Leimeister, and Helmut Krcmar (2009), “Community Engineering for Innovations: The Ideas Competition as a Method to Nurture a Virtual Community for Innovations,” R&D Management, 39(4), 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., and Behnam N. Tabrizi (1995), “Accelerating Adaptive Processes: Product Innovation in the Global Computer Industry,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(1), 84–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Erat, Sanjiv, and Vish Krishnan (2012), “Managing Delegated Search over Design Spaces,” Management Science, 58(3), 606–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evanschitzky, Heiner, Martin Eisend, Roger J. Calantone, and Yuanyuan Jiang (2012), “Success Factors of Product Innovation: An Updated Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(S1), 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fang, Eric (Er) (2008), “Customer Participation and the Trade-Off between New Product Innovativeness and Speed to Market,” Journal of Marketing, 72(4), 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fang, Eric, Robert W. Palmatier, and Kenneth R. Evans (2008), “Influence of Customer Participation on Creating and Sharing of New Product Value,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(3), 322–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Franke, Nikolaus, Peter Keinz, and Martin Schreier (2008), “Complementing Mass Customization Toolkits with User Communities: How Peer Input Improves Customer Self-Design,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(6), 546–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Franke, Nikolaus, Peter Keinz, and Christoph J. Steger (2009), “Testing the Value of Customization: When Do Customers Really Prefer Products Tailored to Their Preferences?,” Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Franke, Nikolaus, and Frank Piller (2004), “Value Creation by Toolkits for User Innovation and Design: The Case of the Watch Market,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(6), 401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Franke, Nikolaus, Marion K. Poetz, and Martin Schreier (2014), “Integrating Problem Solvers from Analogous Markets in New Product Ideation,” Management Science, 60(4), 1063–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Franke, Nikolaus, and Martin Schreier (2008), “Product Uniqueness as a Driver of Customer Utility in Mass Customization,” Marketing Letters, 19(2), 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Franke, Nikolaus, and Martin Schreier (2010), “Why Customers Value SelfDesigned Products: The Importance of Process Effort and Enjoyment,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(7), 1020–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Franke, Nikolaus, Martin Schreier, and Ulrike Kaiser (2010), “The ‘I Designed It Myself’ Effect in Mass Customization,” Management Science, 56(1), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Franke, Nikolaus, and Sonali Shah (2003), “How Communities Support Innovative Activities: An Exploration of Assistance and Sharing among End-Users,” Research Policy, 32(1), 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Franke, Nikolaus, Eric von Hippel, and Martin Schreier (2006), “Finding Commercially Attractive User Innovations: A Test of Lead-User Theory,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(4), 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fuchs, Christoph, Emanuela Prandelli, and Martin Schreier (2010), “The Psychological Effects of Empowerment Strategies on Consumers’ Product Demand,” Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fuchs, Christoph, Emanuela Prandelli, Martin Schreier, and Darren W. Dahl (2013), “All That Is Users Might Not Be Gold: How Labeling Products as User Designed Backfires in the Context of Luxury Fashion Brands,” Journal of Marketing, 77(5), 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gebauer, Johannes, Johann Füller, and Roland Pezzei (2013), “The Dark and the Bright Side of Co-Creation: Triggers of Member Behavior in Online Innovation Communities,” Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1516–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gemünden, Hans Georg, Thomas Ritter, and Peter Heydebreck (1996), “Network Configuration and Innovation Success: An Empirical Analysis in German HighTech Industries,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(5), 449–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Girotra, K., C. Terwiesch, and K. T. Ulrich (2010), “Idea Generation and the Quality of the Best Idea,” Management Science, 56(4), 591–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grewal, Rajdeep, Raj Metha, and Frank R. Kardes (2000), “The Role of the SocialIdentity Function of Attitudes in Consumer Innovativeness and Opinion Leadership,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 21(3), 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Griffin, Abbie (1992), “Evaluating QFD’s Use in US Firms as a Process for Developing Products,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 9(3), 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Griffin, Abbie, and John R. Hauser (1993), “The Voice of the Customer,” Marketing Science, 12(1), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gruner, Kjell E., and Christian Homburg (2000), “Does Customer Interaction Enhance New Product Success?,” Journal of Business Research, 49(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hedge, Vishwanath, Sunder Kekre, Surendra Rajiv, and Pandu R. Tadikamalla (2005), “Customization: Impact on Product and Process Performance,” Production and Operations Management, 14(4), 388–399.Google Scholar
  55. Henard, David H., and David M. Szymanski (2001), “Why Some New Products Are More Successful than Others,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38(3), 362–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Herstatt, Cornelius, and Eric von Hippel (1992), “Developing New Product Concepts via the Lead User Method: A Case Study in a ‘Low Tech’ Field,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 9(3), 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hirschman, Elisabeth C. (1980), “Innovativeness, Novelty Seeking, and Consumer Creativity,” Journal of Consumer Research, 7(3), 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), “Consumer Intelligence, Creativity, and Consciousness: Implications for Consumer Protection and Education,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 2(1), 153–170.Google Scholar
  59. Hoffman, Donna L., Praveen K. Kopalle, and Thomas P. Novak (2010), “The ‘Right’ Consumers for Better Concepts: Identifying Consumers High in Emergent Nature to Develop New Product Concepts,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47(5), 854–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hoyer, Wayne D., Rajesh Chandy, Matilda Dorotic, Manfred Krafft, and Siddharth S. Singh (2010), “Consumer Co-Creation in New Product Development,” Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Huang, Yan, Param Vir Singh, and Kannan Srinivasan (2014), “Crowdsourcing New Product Ideas under Consumer Learning,” Management Science, 60(9), 2138–2159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Iyengar, Raghuram, Christophe Van den Bulte, and Thomas W. Valente (2011a), “Opinion Leadership and Social Contagion in New Product Diffusion,” Marketing Science, 30(2), 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iyengar, Raghuram, Christophe Van den Bulte, and Thomas W. Valente (2011b), “Rejoinder — Further Reflections on Studying Social Influence in New Product Diffusion,” Marketing Science, 30(2), 230–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jarvis, Cheryl Burke, Scott B. Mackenzie, and Philip M. Podsakoff (2003), “A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2), 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jeppesen, Lars Bo, and Lars Frederiksen (2006), “Why Do Users Contribute to Firm-Hosted User Communities? The Case of Computer-Controlled Music Instruments,” Organization Science, 17(1), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaplan, Andreas M., and Michael Haenlein (2006), “Toward a Parsimonious Definition of Traditional and Electronic Mass Customization,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(2), 168–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Katz, Elihu, and Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (1955), Personal Influence, The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  68. Kotha, Suresh (1995), “Mass Customization: Implementing the Emerging Paradigm for Competitive Advantage,” Strategic Management Journal, 16(S1), 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kozinets, Robert V. (2002), “The Field behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities,” Journal of Marketing Research, 39(1), 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kramer, Thomas (2007), “The Effect of Measurement Task Transparency on Preference Construction and Evaluations of Personalized Recommendations,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44(2), 224–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kramer, Thomas, Suri Spolter-Weisfeld, and Maneesh Thakkar (2007), “The Effect of Cultural Orientation on Consumer Responses to Personalization,” Marketing Science, 26(2), 246–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kratzer, Jan, and Christopher Lettl (2009), “Distinctive Roles of Lead Users and Opinion Leaders in the Social Networks of Schoolchildren,” Journal of Consumer Research, 36(4), 646–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Laursen, Keld, and Ammon Salter (2006), “Open for Innovation: The Role of Openness in Explaining Innovation Performance among U.K. Manufacturing Firms,” Strategic Management Journal, 27(2), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lengnick-Hall, Cynthia A. (1996), “Customer Contributions to Quality: A Different View of the Customer-Oriented Firm,” Academy of Management Review, 21(3), 791–824.Google Scholar
  75. Liechty, John, Venkatram Ramaswamy, and Steven H. Cohen (2001), “Choice Menus for Mass Customization: An Experimental Approach for Analyzing Customer Demand with an Application to a Web-Based Information Service,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lilien, Gary L., Pamela D. Morrison, Kathleen Searls, Mary Sonnack, and Eric von Hippel (2002), “Performance Assessment of the Lead User Idea-Generation Process for New Product Development,” Management Science, 48(8), 1042–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu, Tracy Xiao, Jian Yang, Lada A. Adamic, and Yan Chen (2014), “Crowdsourcing with All-Pay Auctions: A Field Experiment on Taskcn,” Management Science, 60(8), 2020–2037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lüthje, Christian, and Cornelius Herstatt (2004), “The Lead User Method: An Outline of Empirical Findings and Issues for Future Research,” R&D Management, 34(5), 553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lüthje, Christian, Cornelius Herstatt, and Eric von Hippel (2005), “UserInnovators and ‘Local’ Information: The Case of Mountain Biking,” Research Policy, 34(6), 951–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ma, Hsen-Hsing (2009), “The Effect Size of Variables Associated with Creativity: A Meta-Analysis,” Creativity Research Journal, 21(1), 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Magnusson, Peter R. (2009), “Exploring the Contributions of Involving Ordinary Users in Ideation of Technology-Based Services,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 26(5), 578–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Menguc, Bulent, Seigyoung Auh, and Peter Yannopoulos (2014), “Customer and Supplier Involvement in Design: The Moderating Role of Incremental and Radical Innovation Capability,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(2), 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Merle, Aurélie, Jean-Louis Chandon, Elyette Roux, and Fabrice Alizon (2010), “Perceived Value of the Mass-Customized Product and Mass Customization Experience for Individual Consumers,” Production and Operations Management, 19(5), 503–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moreau, C. Page, Leff Bonney, and Kelly B. Herd (2011), “It’s the Thought (and the Effort) That Counts: How Customizing for Others Differs from Customizing for Oneself,” Journal of Marketing, 75(5), 120–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Moreau, C. Page, and Darren W. Dahl (2005), “Designing the Solution: The Impact of Constraints on Consumers’ Creativity,” Journal of Consumer Research, 32(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moreau, C. Page, and Kelly B. Herd (2010), “To Each His Own? How Comparisons with Others Influence Consumers’ Evaluations of Their Self-Designed Products,” Journal of Consumer Research, 36(5), 806–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morrison, Pamela D., John H. Roberts, and David F. Midgley (2004), “The Nature of Lead Users and Measurement of Leading Edge Status,” Research Policy, 33(2), 351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morrison, Pamela D., John H. Roberts, and Eric von Hippel (2000), “Determinants of User Innovation and Innovation Sharing in a Local Market,” Management Science, 46(12), 1513–1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nambisan, Satish (2002), “Designing Virtual Customer Environments for New Product Development: Toward a Theory,” Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 392–413.Google Scholar
  90. Natalicchio, A., A. Messeni Petruzzelli, and A. C. Garavelli (2014), “A Literature Review on Markets for Ideas: Emerging Characteristics and Unanswered Questions,” Technovation, 34(2), 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nishikawa, Hidehiko, Martin Schreier, and Susumu Ogawa (2013), “UserGenerated versus Designer-Generated Products: A Performance Assessment at Muji,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30(2), 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Noble, Charles H., Rajiv K. Sinha, and Ajith Kumar (2002), “Market Orientation and Alternative Strategic Orientations: A Longitudinal Assessment of Performance Implications,” Journal of Marketing, 66(4), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Perks, Helen, Thorsten Gruber, and Bo Edvardsson (2012), “Co-Creation in Radical Service Innovation: A Systematic Analysis of Microlevel Processes,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(6), 935–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Piller, Frank T., and Dominik Walcher (2006), “Toolkits for Idea Competitions: A Novel Method to Integrate Users in New Product Development,” R&D Management, 36(3), 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Poetz, Marion K., and Martin Schreier (2012), “The Value of Crowdsourcing: Can Users Really Compete with Professionals in Generating New Product Ideas?,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(2), 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Prahalad, Coimbatore K., and Venkatram Ramaswamy (2000), “Co-Opting Customer Competence,” Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 79–90.Google Scholar
  97. Ramaswamy, Venkatram, and Kerimcan Ozcan (2014), The Co-Creation Paradigm, Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.Google Scholar
  98. Randall, Taylor, Christian Terwiesch, and Karl T. Ulrich (2007), “User Design of Customized Products,” Marketing Science, 26(2), 268–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ridgway, Nancy M., and Linda L. Price (1994), “Exploration in Product Usage: A Model of Use Innovativeness,” Psychology and Marketing, 11(1), 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rindfleisch, Aric, and Christine Moorman (2001), “The Acquisition and Utilization of Information in New Product Alliances: A Strength-of-Ties Perspective,” Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roberts, Jeffrey A., Il-Horn Hann, and Sandra A. Slaughter (2006), “Understanding the Motivations, Participation, and Performance of Open Source Software Developers: A Longitudinal Study of the Apache Projects,” Management Science, 52(7), 984–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rogers, Everett M., and Floyd F. Shoemaker (1971), Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach, New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  103. Rothwell, R., C. Freeman, A. Horsley, V. T. P. Jervis, A. B. Robertson, and J. Townsend (1974), “SAPPHO Updated — Project SAPPHO Phase II,” Research Policy, 3(3), 258–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schreier, Martin, Stefan Oberhauser, and Reinhard Prügl (2007), “Lead Users and the Adoption and Diffusion of New Products: Insights from Two Extreme Sports Communities,” Marketing Letters, 18(1–2), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schreier, Martin, and Reinhard Prügl (2008), “Extending Lead-User Theory: Antecedents and Consequences of Consumers’ Lead Userness,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(4), 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Scott, Ginamarie, Lyle E. Leritz, and Michael D. Mumford (2004), “The Effectiveness of Creativity Training: A Quantitative Review,” Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 361–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sellier, Anne-Laure, and Darren W. Dahl (2011), “Focus! Creative Success Is Enjoyed through Restricted Choice,” Journal of Marketing Research, 48(6), 996–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shaw, Brian (1985), “The Role of the Interaction between the User and the Manufacturer in Medical Equipment Innovation,” R&D Management, 15(4), 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Simonson, Itamar (2005), “Determinants of Customers’ Responses to Customized Offers: Conceptual Framework and Research Propositions,” Journal of Marketing, 69(1), 32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Spann, Martin, Holger Ernst, Bernd Skiera, and Jan Henrik Soll (2009), “Identification of Lead Users for Consumer Products via Virtual Stock Markets,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 26(3), 322–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Syam, Niladri B., and Amit Pazgal (2013), “Co-Creation with Production Externalities,” Marketing Science, 32(5), 805–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Takeishi, Akira (2001), “Bridging Inter-and Intra-Firm Boundaries: Management of Supplier Involvement in Automobile Product Development,” Strategic Management Journal, 22(5), 403–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Taylor, Curtis R. (1995), “Digging for Golden Carrots: An Analysis of Research Tournaments,” American Economic Review, 85(4), 872–890.Google Scholar
  114. Terwiesch, Christian, and Yi Xu (2008), “Innovation Contests, Open Innovation, and Multiagent Problem Solving,” Management Science, 54(9), 1529–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahneman (1991), “Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference-Dependent Model,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(4), 1039–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Urban, Glen L., and Eric von Hippel (1988), “Lead User Analyses for the Development of New Industrial Products,” Management Science, 34(5), 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Valenzuela, Ana, Ravi Dhar, and Florian Zettelmeyer (2009), “Contingent Response to Self-Customization Procedures: Implications for Decision Satisfaction and Choice,” Journal of Marketing Research, 46(6), 754–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. van Eck, Peter S., Wander Jager, and Peter S. H. Leeflang (2011), “Opinion Leaders’ Role in Innovation Diffusion: A Simulation Study,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2), 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Von Hippel, Eric (1976), “The Dominant Role of Users in the Scientific Instrument Innovation Process,” Research Policy, 5(3), 212–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Von Hippel, Eric (1978), “Successful Industrial Products from Customer Ideas,” Journal of Marketing, 42(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Von Hippel, Eric (1986), “Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts,” Management Science, 32(7), 791–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Von Hippel, Eric (1990), “Task Partitioning: An Innovation Process Variable,” Research Policy, 19(5), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Von Hippel, Eric, Nikolaus Franke, and Reinhard Prügl (2009), “Pyramiding: Efficient Search for Rare Subjects,” Research Policy, 38(9), 1397–1406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Von Hippel, Eric, and Ralph Katz (2002), “Shifting Innovation to Users via Toolkits,” Management Science, 48(7), 821–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Von Hippel, Eric, Stefan Thomke, and Mary Sonnack (1999), “Creating Breakthroughs at 3M,” Harvard Business Review, 77(5), 47–57.Google Scholar
  126. Von Hippel, Eric, and Georg von Krogh (2003), “Open Source Software and the ‘Private-Collective’ Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science,” Organization Science, 14(2), 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Watts, Duncan J., and Peter Sheridan Dodds (2007), “Influentials, Networks, and Public Opinion Formation,” Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 441–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilcox, Keith, and Sangyoung Song (2011), “Discrepant Fluency in SelfCustomization,” Journal of Marketing Research, 48(4), 729–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wind, Jerry, and Vijay Mahajan (1997), “Issues and Opportunities in New Product Development: An Introduction to the Special Issue,” Journal of Marketing Research, 34(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wind, Jerry, and Arvind Rangaswamy (2001), “Customerization: The Next Revolution in Mass Customization,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(1), 13–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yli-Renko, Helena, and Ramkumar Janakiraman (2008), “How Customer Portfolio Affects New Product Development in Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Firms,” Journal of Marketing, 72(5), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zheng, Haichao, Dahui Li, and Wenhua Hou (2011), “Task Design, Motivation, and Participation in Crowdsourcing Contests,” International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(4), 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Hubert Gatignon, David Gotteland and Christophe Haon 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubert Gatignon
    • 1
  • David Gotteland
    • 2
  • Christophe Haon
    • 2
  1. 1.INSEADSorbonne UniversitésFrance
  2. 2.Grenoble Ecole de ManagementFrance

Personalised recommendations