Pan-Asianism in the Wartime Writings of Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Intellectuals in a Transnational Space at Kenkoku University in Japanese-Occupied Manchuria

  • Yuka Hiruma Kishida
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)


Kenkoku University (Nation-Building University, abbreviated as Kendai) was founded in 1938 by the Kwantung Army, the Japanese army of occupation of the northeastern provinces of China, commonly designated Manchuria. Kendai was the only institution of higher learning administered directly by the Manchukuo’s governing authority, the State Council, which was dominated by Japanese officers. Kendai recruited male students of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Taiwanese, Mongolian, and Russian backgrounds, who applied to the school of their own volition and passed very competitive entrance examinations.1 The school aimed to nurture a generation of leaders who would actualize the pan-Asianist goal of minzoku kyōwa, or “ethnic harmony,” one of the founding principles of this ostensibly independent state.2 To experiment with this pan-Asianist education, not only Japanese but also non-Japanese intellectuals joined the faculty.


Faculty Member Korean Student Asian People Japanese Scholar Cultural Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    Kevin M. Doak, “Building National Identity through Ethnicity: Ethnology in Wartime Japan and After,” Journal of Japanese Studies 27, no. 1 (2001): 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.
    John W. Dower, War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986), p. 265.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Cemil Aydin, The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007) takes a global approach to anti-Westernism by comparing pan-Islamism and pan-Asianism.Google Scholar
  4. Masafumi Yonetani, Ajia/Nihon: Shikō no furonteia (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2006)Google Scholar
  5. and Sven Saaler and J. Victor Koschmann, eds, Pan-Asianism in Modern Japanese History: Colonialism, Regionalism and Borders (New York: Routledge, 2007)Google Scholar
  6. Eri Hotta, Pan-Asianism and Japan’s War 1931–1945 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)Google Scholar
  7. Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011)Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    Peter Duus, Ramon H. Myers, and Mark R. Peattie, eds, The Japanese Informal Empire in China, 1895–1937 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989)Google Scholar
  9. Yoshihisa Tak Matsusaka, The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904–1932 (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001)Google Scholar
  10. Shin’ichi Yamamuro, Manchuria Under Japanese Dominion, trans. Joshua A. Fogel (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006),Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    A pioneering work in this school is Prasenjit Duara, Sovereignty and Authenticity: Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003).Google Scholar
  12. Another example is Mariko Asano Tamanoi, ed., Crossed Histories: Manchuria in the Age of Empire (Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawaii Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  13. Norman Smith, Resisting Manchukuo: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Occupation (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2007)Google Scholar
  14. and Hyun Ok Park, Two Dreams in One Bed: Empire, Social Life, and the Origins of the North Korean Revolution in Manchuria (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005),CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 7.
    Mark R. Peattie, Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s Confrontation with the West (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975) is a comprehensive political biography of Ishiwara Kanji.Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    Manzō Yuji, Kenkoku daigaku nenpyō (Tokyo: Kenkoku Daigaku Dōsō kai, 1981), p. 19.Google Scholar
  17. 9.
    Takayuki Mishina in Kendaishi shiryō 2 (Tokyo: Kenkoku Daigaku Dō sō kai, 1967), p. 6;Google Scholar
  18. 12.
    Fumiaki Shishida, Budō no kyōikuryoku: Manshūkoku kenkoku daigaku ni okeru budō kyōiku (Tokyo: Nihon Tosho Senta, 2005), pp. 126–7.Google Scholar
  19. 14.
    Ryūtarō Nemoto in Kendaishi shiryō 1 (Tokyo: Kenkoku Daigaku Dōsōkai, 1966, p. 8;Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Eriko Miyazawa, Kenkoku daigaku to minzoku kyōwa (Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1997), pp. 98–9.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    Shuiqing Li, Dongbei banian huigulu Trans. Kenzō Takazawa (Tokyo: Kenkoku Daigaku Dōsōkai, 2007), p. 31.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Katsumi Mori, “Daitō a kyōeiken no rekishisei,” Shin chitsujo kensetsu sōsho vol. 9 (Shinkyō: Manshū teikoku kyōwakai, 1942).Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Shigejirō Matsuyama, “Daitō a kensetsu no sekaishi teki haikei,” Shin chitsujo kensetsu sō sho vol. 4 (Shinkyō: Manshū teikoku kyōwakai, 1942), p. 50.Google Scholar
  24. 30.
    Sei’ichi Nakano, “Manshūkoku minzoku seisaku eno shoyōsei,” Kenkyū kihō 1 (1941): 36.Google Scholar
  25. 31.
    Kazuhito Ono, “Manshū kenkoku to nippon: Nippon no taiman kōdō ni kansuru jakkan no rekishiteki kaiko,” Kenkyū kihō 3 (1942): 161.Google Scholar
  26. 37.
    Tōjūrō Murai, “Daitōa kyōeiken no kōiki hōchitsujo,” Shin chitsujo kensetsu sōsho vol. 10 (Shinkyo: ManshOkoku Kyōwakai, 1942), p. 14.Google Scholar
  27. 41.
    Sōichi Sakuta, Manshū kenkoku no genri oyobi hongi, ed. Tōjūrō Murai (Shinkyō: Manshū Tomiyama Bo, 1944), p. 84.Google Scholar
  28. 43.
    Shin’ichirō Nishi, “Kenkoku seishin to ōdō,” Kenkyū kihō 3(1942): 86.Google Scholar
  29. 46.
    Songwu Li, “Duri de jingguo yu ganxiang,” Kenkoku daigaku kenkyüin geppō 8 (1941): 6.Google Scholar
  30. 47.
    see D. R. Howland, Borders of Chinese Civilisation: Geography and History at Empire’s End (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996), pp. 43–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 49.
    Songwu Li, “Manzhou wenhua sixiang shi,” Kenkoku daigaku kenkyüin geppō 36 (1943): 19.Google Scholar
  32. 57.
    Namsōn Ch’oe, Tōhō kominzoku no shinsei kan’nen ni tsuite (Shinkyō: Kenkoku Daigaku Kenkyüin, 1939), pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  33. 63.
    Namsšn Ch’oe, “Suino kami,” Kenkokudaigakukenkyūin geppō 9 (1941): 3.Google Scholar
  34. 65.
    Wōn-Jung Jin, “Kaiko to sekkei,” in Kankirei—manshü kenkoku daigaku zaikan dōsō bunshū. Trans. Ūn-Suk’ K’im and Yoshikazu Kusano (Kenkoku Daigaku Dōsōkai, 2004), pp. 108–9.Google Scholar
  35. 66.
    Ch’un-Shik’ Hong, Hankyore no sekai: Aa nihon (Ansan, 1999), p. 33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Yuka Hiruma Kishida 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuka Hiruma Kishida

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations