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“Cinthia’s Hero”: Edward Howard’s The Six days Adventure, or the New Utopia

  • Judy A. Hayden
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Literature, Science and Medicine book series (PLSM)

Abstract

Early practitioners of “science” often engaged with the “theatrical image, as an analogy for the world which was to be investigated.”1 Thomas Muffet (1550–1604), for example, entitled his study Insectorum sive minorum animalum theatricum (Theatre of Insects: Or, Lesser Living Creatures, 1634), and John Parkinson (1567–1650) called his botanical work the Theatrum Botanicum (Theatre of Plants, 1640).2 The frontispiece illustration and accompanying poem to Vincent Wing and William Leybourn’s Urania Practica (1649) shows Urania on stage in a “silent Comedie,” throwing open the “Curtain of darke Ignorance,” unfolding for the reader knowledge of astronomy and geometry.3 And finally, in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686), Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757), too, draws a parallel, albeit a mechanistic one, between the stage and the heavens, observing of the heavens that

Nature is a great Scene, or Representation, much like one of our Opera’s … every thing is disposed there for representing agreeable Objects to your sight, from a large distance, while the wheels & weights, which move and counterpoise the Machines are all concealed from our view. (96)

Keywords

Eighteenth Century Seventeenth Century World System Agreeable Object Copernican Revolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Simon Schaffer, “Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century,” History of Science 21 (March 1983), 14. Science in the seventeenth century meant “certain knowledge” and referred to a wide body of knowledge rather than specific disciplines. Thus, poetry, history, chemistry and the fine arts, for example, could all be viewed as “science.” See “Intersections and Cross-Fertilization” in Travel Narratives, the New Science, and Literary Discourse, 1569–1750, ed. Judy A. Hayden (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 8.
    Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), 55–65.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Elizabeth Spiller, Science, Reading, and Renaissance Literature: The Art of Making Knowledge, 1580–1670 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 10.
    William Shakespeare, As You Like it, ed. Juliet Dusinberre, Arden Shakespeare Series (London: Thompson Learning, 2006), 2.7. 140–41. Dusinberre points out that the play was probably written in 1598 and performed in 1599, but it was not printed until the first folio in 1623 (1).Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Alice N. Walters, “Ephemeral Events: English Broadsides of Early Eighteenth-Century Solar Eclipses,” History of Science 37 (1999), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 13.
    Thomas Shadwell, The Virtuoso (1676), in vol. 3 of The Complete Works of Thomas Shadwell, ed. Montague Summers (London: The Fortune Press, 1927), 95–182.Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Aphra Behn, Emperor of the Moon: A Farce (1687), in The Plays 1682–1696, vol. 7 of The Works of Aphra Behn, ed. Janet Todd (London: William Pickering, 1996), 153–207.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    See Virgil’s “Third Georgic.” “O Moon, it was with a lure of pure white wool / That you, if what we’re told as true is true, / Were captivated by Pan, Arcadia’s god, Calling you to the innermost forest glade, / And, so it is said, you did not spurn his call.” In The Georgics of Virgil, trans. David Ferry (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), 123. See also C. Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks (1951; London: Thames and Hudson, 1988), 173–175.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. Robert Latham and William Mathews, vol. 7 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), 238.Google Scholar
  10. 20.
    For more on the London instrument makers, see, for example, A. D. C. Simpson, “Richard Reeves—The ‘English Campani’—and the Origins of the London Telescope-making Tradition,” Vistas in Astronomy 28 (1985), 357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gloria C. Clifton, “The Spectaclemakers’ Company and the Origins of the Optical Instrument-making Trade in London,” in Making Instruments Count: Essays on Historical Scientific Instruments Presented to Gerard L’Estrange Turner, ed. R. G. W. Anderson et al. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1993), 341–364. Also helpful is Albert Van Helden, “Telescopes and Authority from Galileo to Cassini,” Osiris 9 (1994), 8–29, and his “The Telescope in the Seventeenth Century,” Isis 65.1 (March 1974), 38–58; and From Earth-Bound to Satellite. Telescopes, Skills and Networks, ed. Alison D. Morrison-Low et al. (Leiden: Brill, 2012).Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    Inge Keil, “Johann Wiesel’s Telescopes and His Clientele,” in From Earth-Bound to Satellite. Telescopes, Skills and Networks, ed. Alison D. Morrison-Low et al. (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012), 26–27.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope (London: Charles Griffin & Company, 1955), 62. Other recent histories of the telescope includeGoogle Scholar
  14. Richard Dunn, The Telescope: A Short History (Greenwich: National Maritime Museum, 2009)Google Scholar
  15. Fred Watson, Stargazer: The Life and Times of the Telescope (Boston: DaCapo Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  16. 25.
    William Poole, “Introduction” to Francis Godwin, The Man in the Moone, ed. William Poole (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2009), 24–25. In Lyly’s Endimion, the watch sings a song in which a drunkard is charged “In the name of the Man in the Moone” to explain why he staggers home so late (4.2.). Lyly’s name is not on the title page of Endimion, The Man in the Moone. Playd before the Queenes Majestie at Greenewich on Candlemas day at night, by the Chyldren of Paules (London: Printed by I. Charlewood, for the widdowe Broome, 1591). References are to scene and act. See note 4 of David Cressy’s essay in this collection, who points out John Taylor’s Taylors Travels and Circular Perambulation (London, 1636), where the writer notes various taverns in London named after the Man in the Moon.Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    Galileo Galilei, Sidereus Nuncius or The Sidereal Messenger, trans. with introduction, conclusion and notes by Albert Van Helden (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 28.
    A number of studies offer an extensive explanation of the various world systems. See, for example, J. L. E. Dreyer, The History of Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler (New York: Dover, 1953)Google Scholar
  19. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution. Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957); more recent studies includeGoogle Scholar
  20. Michael J. Crowe, Theories of the World: From Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution, 2nd edn (1990; Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2001)Google Scholar
  21. David C. Lindberg, The Beginnings of Western Science. The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, Pre-history to AD 1450 (1992; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)Google Scholar
  22. Robert S. Westman, The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order (Berkeley, LA: University of California Press, 2011).Google Scholar
  23. 36.
    William Van Lennep, ed., The London Stage, 1660–1800, Part I 1660–1700 (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1965). The date given for this performance was March 6, 1671. Van Lennep observes that it is uncertain whether this was the premier performance, but no other performance is recorded.Google Scholar
  24. 37.
    See Aphra Behn, The Dutch Lover, in The Plays 1671–1677, vol. 5 of The Works of Aphra Behn, ed. Janet Todd (London: William Pickering, 1996), 157–238.Google Scholar

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© Judy A. Hayden 2016

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  • Judy A. Hayden

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