Advertisement

Social Transformation and Military Leadership: The Nigerian Army and Fourth Generation Wars

  • Okechukwu C. Iheduru
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)

Abstract

Whereas military intervention in African politics has continued to receive scholarly attention (see Kieh and Agbese 2004; Souaré 2014; Powell 2014), the internal leadership processes of the armed forces, especially as they transform to meet domestic and external commitments under democratic control, has practically become an analytic black hole. This chapter seeks to fill this lacuna by using the Nigerian Army (NA) as a case study of the ecology of leadership in which there may be wide gaps between legal governance and the leader’s ability to hold things together while an institution is undergoing transformation. The chapter adopts a context-specific approach that uses specific leadership events as a framework to understand the conditions under which leadership is produced, and the extent to which those conditions have shaped the kind of leaders and leadership paths which have emerged under the democratic dispensation.

Keywords

Social Transformation Military Leadership Security Sector Democratic Control Security Sector Reform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abacha, Sanni. 1992. “The National Defense Policy of Nigeria. National War College.” In Nigeria: Twenty Years of Independence—a Financial Times Survey. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  2. Acharya, Amitav. 2004. “How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism.” International Organization, 58(2): 239–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adamolekun, Ladipo, John Erero, and Basil Oshinebo. 1991. “‘Federal Character’ and Management of the Federal Civil Service and the Military.” Publius, 21(4): 75–88.Google Scholar
  4. AFTC. 2008. “Armed Forces Transformation Committee (AFTC),” Report of Armed Forces Transformation Committee. Abuja: Defense Headquarters.Google Scholar
  5. Agbiboa, Daniel E. January 2014. “Peace at Daggers Drawn? Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(1): 41–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agüero, Felipe. 2009. “The New ‘Double Challenge’: Democratic Control and Efficacy of Military, Policy, and Intelligence.” In Alfred Stepan (ed.), Democracies in Danger. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 59–75.Google Scholar
  7. Aiyede, E. Remi. 2013. “Parliament, Civil Society and Military Reform in Nigeria.” In Jürgen Rüland, Maria-Gabriela Manea, and Hans Born (eds.), The Politics of Military Reform: Experiences from Indonesia and Nigeria. New York and Berlin: Springer, pp. 161–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alli, M. Chris. 1994. “The Defense Capabilities of the Nigerian Armed Forces.” The Nigerian Army Journal, 7: 2–3.Google Scholar
  9. Amnesty International Report. 2012. Nigeria: Trapped in the Cycle of Violence. London: Amnesty International.Google Scholar
  10. Ande, Emmanuel. 2014. “Why We Won’t Sell Arms to Nigeria—U.S.” Guardian (Lagos), October 9, 2014.Google Scholar
  11. Ball, Nicole, Kayode Fayemi, ‘Funmi Olonisakin, and Rocky Williams. 2004. Security Sector Governance in Africa: A Handbook. Lagos: Center for Democracy and Development.Google Scholar
  12. Barany, Zoltan. 2012. The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bassey, E. E. 2014. Major General (rtd.), former Director of Administration, Nigerian Army Headquarters, Interview, Abuja, June 25, 2014.Google Scholar
  14. Bayart, Jean-Francois, Stephen Ellis, and Beatrice Hibou. 2009. Criminalization of the State in Africa, 2nd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Beswick, Danielle. April 2014. “The Risks of African Military Capacity Building: Lessons from Rwanda.” African Affairs, 113(451): 212–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolaji, Saka. 2013. “Army Conducts Re-Run Exams for 220 Officers,” National Pilot, August 12, 2013. Available at: http://thenationalpilot.com/Army-conducts-rerun-exams-for-220-officers.html#sthash.FBtvIRgf.dpbs.
  17. Bryden, Alan and Funmi Olonisakin. 2010a. “Conceptualizing Security Sector Transformation in Africa.” In Bryden and Olonisakin (eds.), Security Sector Transformation in Africa. Geneva: Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.Google Scholar
  18. Bryden, Alan and Funmi Olonisakin (eds.). 2010b. Security Sector Transformation in Africa. Geneva: Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.Google Scholar
  19. Cawthra, Gavin and Robin Luckham. 2003. Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security Establishments in Transitional Democracies. London: ZED Books.Google Scholar
  20. Chabal, Patrick and Jean-Pascal Daloz. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Oxford: James Currey.Google Scholar
  21. Chukwuma, Innocent. 2008. “Motion without Movement”: Report of the Presidential Commission on Police Reforms in Nigeria. Abuja: CLEEN Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Cocks, Tim. 2014. “Boko Haram Highlights Slow Decline of Nigeria’s Military,” BDLive, May 12, 2014. Available at: http://www.bdlive.co.za/africa/africannews/2014/05/12/boko-haram-highlights-slow-decline-of-nigerias-military.
  23. Cohen, Eliot. September 2004. “Change and Transformation in Military Affairs.” Journal of Strategic Studies, 27(3): 395–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Desch, Michael C. 1999. Civilian Control of the Military: The Changing Security Environment. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dombrowski, Peter J., Eugene Gholz, and Andrew L. Ross. Summer 2002. “Selling Military Transformation: The Defense Industry and Innovation.” Orbis, 46(3): 523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dzinesa, G. 2007. “Post-Conflict Disarmaments, Demobilization and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Southern Africa.” International Studies Perspectives, 8(1): 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edet, H. I. 2014. Brigadier-General, Commander, Counter Terrorism Training Center, Kontagora, Nigeria. Interview, Abuja, June 30, 2014.Google Scholar
  28. Ehwariene, William. July 2011. “The Military Factor in Nigeria’s Democratic Stability, 1999–2009.” Armed Forces & Society, 37(3): 494–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elaigwu, Jonah I. 2013. “Reinventing the Military as a Political Actor: Alternative Discourses of Civil-Military Relations in Nigeria.” In Jürgen Rüland, Maria-Gabriela Manea, and Hans Born (eds.), The Politics of Military Reform: Experiences From Indonesia and Nigeria. New York and Berlin: Springer, pp. 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ezeamalu, Ben. 2015. “Boko Haram: Nigerian Army Opens Trial of Brigadier-General, 21 Other Senior Officers,” Premiumtimesng.com, March 9, 2015. Available at: http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/178210-boko-haram-nigerian-army-opens-trial-of-brigadier-general-21-other-senior-officers.html.
  31. Falola, Toyin. 1998. Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  32. Farrell, Tho, Sten Rynning, and Terry Terriff. 2013. Transforming Military Power since the Cold War: Britain, France, and the United States, 1991–2012. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fasana, Kenton G. January 2011. “Using Capabilities to Drive Military Transformation: An Alternative Framework.” Armed Forces & Society, 37(1): 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fayemi, J. Kayode. 2003. “Governing the Security Sector in a Democratizing Polity.” In Gavin Cawthra and Robin Luckham (eds.), Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security Establishments in Transitional Democracies. London and New York: ZED Books, pp. 57–77.Google Scholar
  35. Feaver, Peter D. 2003. Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Finnemore, Martha and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998 “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization, 52(4): 887–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gross, Michael L. 2009. Moral Dilemmas of Modern War, Torture, Assassination, and Blackmail in an Age of Asymmetric Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2004. “African Militaries and Rebellion: the Political Economy of Threat and Combat Effectiveness.” Journal of Peace Research, 41(3): 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hill, John N. C. 2012. Nigeria since Independence: Forever Fragile? London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hills, Alice. 2012. “Lost in Translation: Why Nigeria’s Police Don’t Implement Democratic Reforms.” International Affairs, 88(4): 739–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hiskett, Mervyn. October 1987. “The Maitatsine Riots in Kano, 1980: An Assessment.” Journal of Religion in Africa, 17(3): 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Human Rights Watch. May 1, 2014. Nigeria: Massive Destruction, Deaths from Military Raid Satellite Images, Witness Accounts Raise Concerns of Cover-Up. Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  43. Ihejirika, Onyeabor A. 2012. Selected Speeches, Addresses and Lectures of the Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General OA Ihejirika, vol. 1. Abuja: Army Headquarters.Google Scholar
  44. Ihejirika, Onyeabor A. 2013a. Selected Speeches, Addresses and Lectures of the Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General OA Ihejirika, vol. II. Abuja: Army Headquarters.Google Scholar
  45. Ihejirika, Onyeabor A. 2013b. Selected Speeches, Addresses and Lectures of the Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant General OA Ihejirika, vol. III. Abuja: Army Headquarters.Google Scholar
  46. Ihejirika, Onyeabor A. 2014. Interview, Ovim, Isikwuato, Abia State, Nigeria, June 12–13, 2014.Google Scholar
  47. Kieh, Jr., George Klay and Pita Ogaba Agbese (eds.). 2004. The Military and Politics in Africa: From Engagement to Democratic and Constitutional Control. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  48. Koleoso, Mobolaji. 2013. Major General & Director, Civil Military Affairs, Nigerian Army. Interview, Army Headquarters, Abuja, June 13, 2013.Google Scholar
  49. Krogstad, Erlend Grøner. 2012. “Security, Development and Force: Revisiting Police Reform in Sierra Leone.” African Affairs, 111(443): 261–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luckham, Robin. 1994. “The Military, Militarization and Democratization in Africa: A Survey of Literature and Issues.” African Studies Review, 37(2): 13–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Magbadelo, John O. 2012. “Defense Transformation in Nigeria: A Critical Issue for National Security.” India Quarterly, 68(3): 251–266.Google Scholar
  52. Manea, Maria-Gabriela and Jürgen Rüland. 2013. “Taking Stock of Military Reform in Nigeria.” In Jürgen Rüland, Maria-Gabriela Manea, and Hans Born (eds.), The Politics of Military Reform: Experiences From Indonesia and Nigeria. New York and Berlin: Springer, pp. 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Margon, Sarah. 2014. “How Do You Beat Boko Haram with an Army That’s Almost as Evil?” Human Rights Watch, May 14, 2014. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/05/14/how-do-you-beat-boko-haram-army-thats-almost-evil.
  54. Mehler, Andreas. January 2012. “Why Security Forces Do Not Deliver Security: Evidence from Liberia and the Central African Republic.” Armed Forces & Society, 38(1): 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muraina, A. I. 2014. Major General, Director of Finance, Nigerian Army Headquarters, Interview, Abuja, June 26, 2014.Google Scholar
  56. NATIC. 2013. “Sensitization Campaign Brief at Nigerian Army Divisional Headquarters (Nigerian Army Transformation and Innovation Center—NATIC), 15 April-7 May, 2013,” 1–3.Google Scholar
  57. N’Diaye, Boubacar. January 2009. “Francophone Africa and Security Sector Transformation: Plu Change...“ African Security, 2(1) 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ndiomu, B. T. 2014. Brigadier-General; Commander, Nigerian Army Garrison, Mogadishu Cantonment, Asokoro. Interview, Abuja, June 24, 2014.Google Scholar
  59. Obada, Erelu Olusola. July 18, 2013. “Nigeria’s Defense Priorities: Domestic Stability for Regional Security.” Chatham House, London. Available at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Meetings/Meeting%20Transcripts/180713Obada.pdf.
  60. Obadare, Ebenezer and Wale Adebanwi (eds.). 2010. Encountering the Nigerian State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  61. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2004. Security System Reform and Governance (DAC Guidelines and Reference Series). Paris.Google Scholar
  62. OECD. 2005. Security System Reform and Governance. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ogunlesi, Tolu. 2015. “Nigeria’s Army of Psychopaths,” The New York Times, January 20, 2015. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/21/opinion/the-boko-haram-factor.html?_r=0.
  64. Okome, Mojúbú O. (ed.). 2013. State Fragility, State Formation and Human Security in Nigeria. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Oni, S. S. 2010. “National Defense Policy and Transformation in the Nigerian Armed Forces: Challenges and Prospects.” A Project submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Fellow of Defense College, Abuja. Available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/nigeria/policy.htm (accessed May 29, 2014).
  66. Osumah, Oarhe. 2013. “Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Vicious Cycle of Internal Insecurity.” Small Wars & Insurgencies, 24(3): 536–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Oyewole, Samuel. September 2013. “Boko Haram and the Challenges of Nigeria’s War on Terror.” Defense & Security Analysis, 29(3): 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. PM News. 2011. “24 Captains Fail Nigerian Army Promotion Examinations,” PM News (Lagos), October 28, 2011. Available at: http://www.pmnews-nigeria.com/2011/10/28/24-captains-fail-nigerian-army-promotion-examinations%C2%A0%C2%A0/.
  69. Posen, Barry. 1984. The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany between the World Wars. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Powell, Jonathan M. 2014. “An Assessment of the ‘Democratic’ Coup Theory: Democratic Trajectories in Africa, 1952–2012.” African Security Review, 23(3): 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp, and Kathryn Sikkink (eds.). 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Shiklam, John. 2013. “Buhari: Military Offensive against Boko Haram, Anti-North,” Thisday, June 3, 2013. Available at: http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/buhari-military-offensive-against-boko-haram-anti-north/149256.
  73. Siollun, Max. 2013. Soldiers of Fortune: Nigerian Politics from Buhari to Babangida, 1983–1993. Abuja: Algora Publishers.Google Scholar
  74. Souaré, Issaka K. 2014. “The African Union as a Norm Entrepreneur on Military Coups d’Èat in Africa (1952-2012): An Empirical Assessment.” Journal of Modern African Studies, 52(1): 69–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stulberg, Adam N., Michael D. Salomone, and Austin G. Long. 2007. Managing Defense Transformation: Agency, Culture and Service Change. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  76. Tonwe, Daniel A. and Surulola J. Eke. November 2013. “State Fragility and Violent Uprisings in Nigeria.” African Security Review, 22(4): 232–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Trinkunas, Harold. January 2013. “Building Democratic Militaries.” Journal of Democracy, 24(1):: 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Umahi, O. A. 2014. Major General, Director of Administration, Defence Headquarters, Interview, Abuja, July 1, 2014.Google Scholar
  79. Vanguard News. 2013. “Borno Cautions ‘Civilian JTF’ against Abuse of Power,” October 28, 2013. Available at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/10/borno-cautions-civilian-jtf-abuse-power/.
  80. Wahab, G. A. 2014. Major General, Director of Administration, Nigerian Army Headquarters, Interview, Abuja, June 26, 2014.Google Scholar
  81. Walker, Andrew. 2014. “Why Nigeria Has Not Defeated Boko Haram,” BBC News, May 13, 2014. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27396702.
  82. Welch, Jr., Claude E. Summer 1995. “Civil-Military Agonies in Nigeria: Pains of an Unaccomplished Transition.” Armed Forces and Society, 21(4): 593–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Williams, Rocky. November 2001. “African Armed Forces and the Challenges of Security Sector Transformations.” Strategic Review for Southern Africa, 23(2): 1–35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Okechukwu C. Iheduru 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Okechukwu C. Iheduru

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations