Meta-Analyzing the Differential Effects of Emotions on Disengagement from Unethical Behavior: An Asymmetric Self-Regulation Model

  • Dejun Tony Kong
  • Sarah Drew
Part of the Jepson Studies in Leadership book series (JSL)


Ethics are an important element of all kinds of social relations and conflict. Yet ethical scandals abound in various areas, including business, law, politics, medicine, education, and so forth. As unethical behavior becomes “in vogue” (Lewicki & Robinson, 1998, p. 665), researchers have increased effort to identify the individual-level causes of unethical behavior (Kish-Gephart, Harrison, & Treviño, 2010; O’Fallon & Butterfield, 2005;Tenbrunsel & Smith-Crowe, 2008; Treviño, Weaver, & Reynolds, 2006). Yet this line of inquiry, which has largely adopted rationalist approaches (e.g., Kohlberg, 1969; Piaget, 1965), focuses on trait and situational factors (Kish-Gephart et al., 2010; Moore & Gino, 2013) and neglects the important effects of state/temporary factors, such as emotions (Haidt, 2001;Tangney, Stuewig, & Mashek, 2007). Emotions have been considered “a non-essential aspect to the ethical decision process that is best ignored, if not controlled, as it interferes with a logical, rational ethical decision process” (Gaudine &Thorne, 2001, p. 175; also see Eisenberg, 2000;Treviño et al., 2006). Yet Tenbrunsel and Smith-Crowe (2008) noted that they are “disappointed that most research assumes that the process is a reason-based one (in the traditional sense), thus ignoring the roles of emotions, the subconscious, and intuition” (p. 547).


Business Ethic Emotion Regulation Negative Emotion Positive Emotion Unethical Behavior 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allred, K.G. (1999). Anger and retaliation: Toward an understanding of impassioned conflict in organizations. In R.J. Bies, R.J. Lewicki, & B.H. Sheppard (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations (Vol. 7, pp. 27–58). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  2. Andrade, E.B. (2005). Behavioral consequences of affect: Combining evaluative and regulatory mechanisms. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 355–362. doi: 10.1086/497546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquino, K., & Reed, A., II. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1423–1440. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.83.6.1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baas, M., De Dreu, C.K.W., & Nijstad, B.A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134, 779–806. doi: 10.1037/a0012815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, C.M., Schaubroeck, J.M., Huth, M., & Ghumman, S. (2011). Lack of sleep and unethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 169–180. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrett, L.F. (1998). Discrete emotions or dimensions? The role of valence focus and arousal focus. Cognition & Emotion, 12, 579–599. doi: 10.1080/026999398379574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, L.F. (2006). Valence is a basic building block of emotional life. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 35–55. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrett, L.F., & Wager, T.D. (2006). The structure of emotion: Evidence from neu-roimaging studies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 79–83. doi:10.1111/j.0963–7214.2006.00411.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bax, L., Yu, L.M., Ikeda, N., Tsuruta, H., & Moons, K.G. (2006). Development and validation of MIX: Comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 6, 50. doi: 10.1186/1471–2288-6–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carver, C.S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 183–204. doi: 10.1037/a0013965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, M.E., & Arvey, R.D. (2012). Meta-analysis and the development of knowledge. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 79–92. doi: 10.1177/1745691611429355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. *Chen, P.Y., & Spector, P.E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65, 177–184. doi: 10.1111/j.2044–8325.1992.tb00495.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chow, R.M., Tiedens, L.Z., & Govan, C.L. (2008). Excluded emotions: The role of anger in antisocial responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 896–903. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2007.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christian, M.S. (2010). Over-tired and under control? Sleep deprivation, resource depletion, and workplace deviance. PhD. Dissertation, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  15. *Christian, M.S., & Ellis, A.P.J. (2011). Examining the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance: A self-regulatory perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 913–934. doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chugh, D., Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M. (2005). Bounded ethicality as a psychological barrier to recognizing conflicts of interest. In D. Moore, D. Cain, G. Loewenstein, & M. Bazerman (Eds.), Conflict of interest: Challenges and solutions in business, law, medicine, and public policy (pp. 74–95). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. *Cianci, A.M., & Bierstaker, J.L. (2009). The impact of positive and negative mood on the hypothesis generation and ethical judgments of auditors. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Practice, 28, 119–144. doi: 10.2308/aud.2009.28.2.119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohn, L.D., & Becker, B.J. (2003). How meta-analysis increases statistical power. Psychological Methods, 8, 243–253. doi: 10.1037/1082–989X.8.3.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. *Craciun, G.M. (2006). Mood effects on ordinary unethical behavior. PhD Dissertation, University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  20. De Dreu, C.K.W., Baas, M., & Nijstad, B.A. (2008). Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: Toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 739–756. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.94.5.739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drory, A. (1982). Individual differences in boredom proneness and task effectiveness at work. Personnel Psychology, 35,141–151. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.1982.tb02190.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunn, J.R., & Schweitzer, M.E. (2005). Feeling and believing: The influence of emotion on trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 736–748. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.88.5.736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). A nonparametric “trim and fill” method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95, 89–98. doi: 10.1080/01621459.2000.10473905.Google Scholar
  24. Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665–697. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51. 1.665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellsworth, P.C., & Smith, C.A. (1988). Shades of joy: Patterns of appraisal differentiatingpleas-ant emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 2, 301–331. doi: 10.1080/02699938808412702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Erez, A., Bloom, M.C., & Wells, M.T. (1996). Using random rather than fixed effects models in meta-analysis: Implications for situational specificity and validity generalization. Personnel Psychology, 49, 275–306. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.1996.tb01801.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Farmer, R., & Sundberg, N.D. (1986). Boredom proneness: The development and correlates of a new scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fehr, R., & Gelfand, M.J. (2012). The forgiving organization: A multilevel model of forgiveness at work. Academy of Management Review, 37, 664–688. doi: 10.5465/amr.2010.0497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fehr, R., Gelfand, M.J., & Nag, M. (2010). The road to forgiveness: A meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 894–914. doi: 10.1037/a0019993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Field, A.P. (2001). Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients: A Monte Carlo comparison of fixed- and random-effects methods. Psychological Methods, 6, 161–180. doi:10.1037/1082–989X.6.2.161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher, C.D. (1993). Boredom at work: A neglected concept. Human Relations, 46, 395–418. doi: 10.1177/001872679304600305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319. doi: 10.1037/1089–2680.2.3.300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fredrickson, B.L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. doi: 10.1037/0003–066X.56.3.218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 359, 1367–1377. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fredrickson, B.L., & Levenson, R.W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12,191–220. doi:10.1080/026999398379718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fredrickson, B.L., Mancuso, R.A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M.M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24, 237–258. doi:10.1023/A:1010796329158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaudine, A., & Thorne, L. (2001). Emotion and ethical decision-making in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 31, 175–187. doi: 10.1023/A:1010711413444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gendolla, G.H.E. (2000). On the impact of mood on behavior: An integra-tive theory and a review. Review of General Psychology, 4, 378–408. doi:10.1037/1089–2680.4.4.378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gino, F., & Margolis, J.D. (2011). Bringing ethics into focus: How regulatory focus and risk preferences influence (un)ethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 145–156. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gino, F., Schweitzer, M.E., Mead, N.L., & Ariely, D. (2011). Unable to resist temptation: How self-control depletion promotes unethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 191–203. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. *Gooty, J. (2007). Development and test of a model linking emotions and work behaviors. PhD Dissertation, University of Central Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  42. Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834. doi: 10.1037/0033–295X.108.4.814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haidt, J. (2003). Elevation and the positive psychology of morality. In C.L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 275–289). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hedges, L.V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hedges, L.V., & Vevea, J.L. (1998). Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 3, 486–504. doi: 10.1037/1082–989X.3.4.486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Higgins, E.T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300. doi: 10.1037/0003–066X.52.12.1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Higgins, J.P.T., Thompson, S.G., Deeks, J.J., & Altman, D.G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal, 327, 557–560. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. *Holley, E.C. (2012). A time for cognitive change: The reappraisal of anger, interpersonal injustice, and counterproductive work behaviors. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  49. Huedo-Medina, T.B., Sánchez-Meca, J., Marín-Martínez, F., & Botella, J. (2006). Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I2 index? Psychological Methods, 11,193–206. doi: 10.1037/1082–989X.11.2.193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huffcutt, A.I., & Arthur, W. (1995). Development of a new outlier statistic for meta-analytic data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 327–334. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.80.2.327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Isen, A.M., & Simmonds, S. (1978). The effect of feeling good on a helping task that is incompatible with good mood. Social Psychology Quarterly, 41, 345–349. doi:10.2307/3033588.Google Scholar
  53. Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/apti-tude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 657–690. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.74.4.657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kensinger, E.A. (2011). Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 15, 241–252. doi: 10.1515/REVNEURO.2004.15.4.241.Google Scholar
  55. Kensinger, E.A., & Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 3310–3315. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0306408101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. *Khan, A.K., Quratulain, S., & Crawshaw, J.R. (2013). The mediating role of discrete emotions in the relationship between injustice and counterproductive work behaviors: A study in Pakistan. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28, 49–61. doi: 10.1007/s10869–012-9269–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. *Kiewitz, C. (2002). The work anger model (WAM!): An inquiry into the role of anger at work. PhD Dissertation, University of Alabama.Google Scholar
  58. Kish-Gephart, J.J., Harrison, D.A., & Treviño, L.K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: Meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95,1–31. doi: 10.1037/a0017103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. *Kligyte, V. (2008). The influence of emotions and emotion regulation strategies of ethical decision-making. PhD Dissertation, University of Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  60. Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347–480). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  61. *Kouchaki, M., & Desai, S.D. (2013). How incidental anxiety threatens individuals and motivates unethical acts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Lake Buena Vista, FL.Google Scholar
  62. Lerner, J.S., & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 146–159. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.81.1.146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewicki, R.J., & Robinson, R.J. (1998). Ethical and unethical bargaining tactics: An empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 665–682. doi: 10.1023/A:1005719122519.Google Scholar
  64. Lipsey, M.W., & Wilson, D.B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Loewenstein, G.F., Weber, E.U., Hsee, C.K., & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 267–286. doi: 10.1037/0033–2909.127.2.267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. *Mantel, S.P. (2005). Choice or perception: How affect influences ethical choices among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 25, 43–55.Google Scholar
  67. Martindale, C., Hines, D., Mitchell, L., & Covello, E. (1984). EEG alpha asymmetry and creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 77–86. doi:10.1016/0191–8869(84)90140–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mawritz, M.B., Mayer, D.M., Hoobler, J.M., Wayne, S.J., & Marinova, S.V. (2012). A trickle-down model of abusive supervision. Personnel Psychology, 65, 325–357. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.2012.01246.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moore, C., & Gino, F. (2013). Ethically adrift: How others pull our moral compass from true North, and how we can fix it. Research in Organizational Behavior, 33, 53–77. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2013.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morris, W.N., & Reilly, N.P. (1987). Toward the self-regulation of mood: Theory and research. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 215–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247–259. doi:10.1037/0033–2909.126.2.247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Muraven, M., Tice, D., & Baumeister, R. (1998). Self-control as limited resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 774–789. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.74.3.774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Fallon, M.J., & Butterfield, K.D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 1996–2003. Journal of Business Ethics, 59, 375–413. doi: 10.1007/s10551–005-2929–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Olekalns, M., & Smith, P.L. (2009). Mutually dependent: Power, trust, affect and the use of deception in negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 347–365. doi: 10.1007/s10551–008-9774–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child (M. Gabain, Trans.). New York: Free Press (original work published 1932).Google Scholar
  76. *Roberts, S.J. (2012). Application of the stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behavior to incivility. PhD Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Omaha.Google Scholar
  77. *Rodeiro, C. (2010) Retributive justice through decision making. PhD Dissertation, Tulane University.Google Scholar
  78. *Rodell, J.B., & Judge, T.A. (2009). Can “good” stressors spark “bad” behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1438–1451. doi: 10.1037/a0016752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641. doi: 10.1037/0033–2909.86.3.638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rozin, P., Lowery, L., Imada, S., & Haidt, J. (1999). The CAD triad hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 574–586. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.76.4.574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Russell, J.A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.57.5.848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaller, M., & Cialdini, R.B. (1990). Happiness, sadness, and helping: A motivational integration. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 265–296). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  83. Schmeichel, B., Vohs, K., & Baumeister, R. (2003). Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 33–46. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.85.1.33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G.L., & Jordan, A.H. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096–1109. doi:10.1177/0146167208317771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. *Schweitzer, M.E., & Gibson, D.E. (2008). Fairness, feelings, and ethical decision-making: Consequences of violating community standards of fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 287–301. doi: 10.1007/s10551–007-9350–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. *Shaw, J.C. (2004). Effects of explanations on emotions and work behaviors. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  87. *Singh, J.J. (2009). Consumer ethics: The role of incidental emotion, moral intensity and affective commitment. PhD Dissertation, University of Mississippi.Google Scholar
  88. Tangney, J.P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D.J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345–372. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tellegen, A., Watson, D., & Clark, L.A. (1999). On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. Psychological Science, 10, 297–303. doi: 10.1111/1467–9280.00157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tenbrunsel, A.E., & Smith-Crowe, K. (2008). Ethical decision making: Where we’ve been and where we’re going. Academy of Management Annals, 2, 545–607. doi:10.1080/19416520802211677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tice, D.M., Baumeister, R.F., Shmueli, D., & Muraven, M. (2007). Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 379–384. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Treviño, L.K., Weaver, G.R., & Reynolds, S.J. (2006). Behavioral ethics in organizations: A review. Journal of Management, 32, 951–990. doi: 10.1177/0149206306294258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tugade, M.M., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.86.2.320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tugade, M.M., Fredrickson, B.L., & Barrett, L.F. (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: Examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. Journal of Personality, 72, 1161–1190. doi: 10.1111/j.1467–6494.2004.00294.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. *Valdesolo, P., & DeSteno, D. (2006). Manipulations of emotional context shape moraljudg-ment. Psychological Science, 17, 476–477. doi: 10.1111/j.1467–9280.2006.01731.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vohs, K., Baumeister, R., Schmeichel, B., Twenge, J., Nelson, N., & Tice, D. (2008). Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 883–898. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.94.5.883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wegener, D.T., & Petty, R.E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034–1048. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.66.6.1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dejun Tony Kong and Sarah Drew 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dejun Tony Kong
  • Sarah Drew

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations