Advertisement

Czechoslovak Aviation Assistance to Africa (1960–68)

  • Philip Muehlenbeck

Abstract

After World War II, the airplane served to dramatically shrink the world, enabling states to expand their diplomatic relations and trade with distant countries. This was especially true for a small landlocked country like Czechoslovakia. Under the motto, “Air is our sea,” Czechoslovak leaders sought to make their country a transportation center by turning Prague into an aviation hub. As one Czechoslovak diplomat put it in the early 1950s, Czechoslovakia was “a small state,” which could “feed its population only through extensive trade with other countries,” and that trade could only be conducted through the air.1 The Czechoslovak government understood that it needed its own civil aviation capabilities so it would not have to be dependent on foreign airlines to transport its goods and diplomatic delegations. Prague was therefore sympathetic when, during the late 1950s, newly independent African states similarly sought their own national airlines.

Keywords

Civil Aviation African State International Civil Aviation Organization Federal Aviation Administration Soviet Bloc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    J. Kasparek (1952) “Negotiating the Czech-Soviet Aviation Agreement” American Slavic and East European Review 11 (3), p. 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Cumming (1962) “Aviation in Africa” African Affairs 61 (242), p. 30.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Gidwitz (1980) The Politics of International Air Transport (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books), p. 21.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. A. Engel (2007) Cold War at 30,000 Feet: The Anglo-American Fight for Aviation Supremacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), p. 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 6.
    J. Strejček (1979) Léta létání [The History of Flight] (Prague: Nadas), p. 115.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    A. Sampson (1984) Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contests and Cartels of World Airlines (London: Hodder and Stoughton), p. 71.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    D.R. Jones (1998) “The Rise and Fall of Aeroflot: Civil Aviation in the Soviet Union, 1920–1991,” in Robin Hingham, John T. Greenwood, and Van Hardesty (eds.) Russian Aviation and Air Power in the Twentieth Century (Portland, OR: Frank Cass).Google Scholar
  8. 18.
    L. Zeman (2003) Czech Airlines 1923/2003: For 80 Years at Home in the Skies (Prague: Czech Airlines), p. 54.Google Scholar
  9. 24.
    Zeman, Czech Airlines 1923/2003, pp. 76–85 and H. Macdonald (1975) Aeroflot: Soviet Air Transport since 1923 (London: Putnam).Google Scholar
  10. 26.
    B. R. Guttery (1998) Encyclopedia of African Airlines (Jefferson, NC: McFarland), pp. 74–7.Google Scholar
  11. 39.
    P. Zidek and K. Sieber (2007) Československo a subsaharská Afrika v letech 1948–1989 [Czechoslovakia and Sub-Saharan Africa, 1948–1989] (Prague: Ústavmezinárodníchvztahů), p. 79 and Guttery, Encyclopedia of African Airlines, pp. 78–9.Google Scholar
  12. 42.
    P. Zidek (2002) “Vývoz zbrani z Československa do zemí třetího světa v letech 1948–1962” [Export of arms from Czechoslovakia to third world countries in the years 1948–1962] Historie a vojenství 3, pp. 560–1.Google Scholar
  13. 45.
    Guttery, Encyclopedia of African Airlines, pp. 78–9 and W. Attwood (1967) The Reds and the Blacks: A Personal Adventure (New York: Harper & Row), p. 123.Google Scholar
  14. 56.
    G. Ginsburgs and R. M. Slusser (1981) A Calendar of Soviet Treaties 1958–1973 (Boston, MA: Brill), p. 137 and S. Mazov (2010) A Distant Front in the Cold War: The USSR in West Africa and the Congo, 1956–1964 (Washington, DC and Stanford, CA: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Stanford University Press), p. 220.Google Scholar
  15. 75.
    S. Mazov (2007) “Soviet Aid to the Gizenga Government in the Former Belgian Congo (1960–61) as Reflected in Russian Archives,” Cold War History 7 (3), pp. 425–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 83.
    Memorandum from Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Achilles to Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs George C. McGhee, May 10, 1962. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume XXI, Africa (1996) (Washington, DC: US Department of State), pp. 315–18.Google Scholar
  17. 100.
    For a good account of the events of the Cuban missile crisis, see A. Fursenko and T. Naftali (1997) One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958–1964 (New York: W.W. Norton).Google Scholar
  18. 112.
    R. Legvold (1970) Soviet Policy in West Africa (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), p. 157. Also see W. Attwood, The Reds and the Blacks, p. 104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 113.
    Attwood, Reds and the Blacks, p. 109. For a discussion of Sékou Touré’s visit to the Kennedy White House see P. E. Muehlenbeck (2012) Betting on the Africans: John F. Kennedy’s Courting of African Nationalist Leaders (New York: Oxford University Press), pp. 67–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 117.
    Nkrumah quoted by Mahoney in an interview with David Rooney. See D. Rooney (1988) Kwame Nkrumah: The Political Kingdom in the Third World (New York: St. Martin’s), p. 243.Google Scholar
  21. 120.
    R. D. Mahoney (1983) JFK: Ordeal in Africa (New York: Oxford University Press), pp. 181, 245.Google Scholar
  22. 123.
    P. M. Kaiser (1992) Journeying Far and Wide: A Political and Diplomatic Memoir (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons). Also see telegram from Ambassador Philip Kaiser (Dakar) to Secretary of State Dean Rusk, October 27, 1962. Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, Morocco, US Embassy, Rabat, Classified General Records, 1956–63, Box No. 13, Folder “US-Cuba, 1962–1964,” Record Group 84; Kaiser, Frontline Diplomacy; and Stephen Low, oral history interview, December 5, 1997, Frontline Diplomacy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Philip Muehlenbeck 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Muehlenbeck

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations