A Case of Jewish Coverage of the Armenian Genocide in the United States: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, “Champion of any Wronged People”

  • Claire Mouradian
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide book series (PSHG)


A few recent monographs have shown an interest in the American attitude towards the Armenian Genocide,2 a mix of humanitarian mobilization in aid of the victims and an inability to stop the extermination despite an early awareness of the ongoing massacres and the indignation of both the general public and the highest State authorities, chief among whom was President Woodrow Wilson.3 When the United States finally entered the First World War in April 1917, it did not declare war on the Ottoman Empire, though the US was among the first to denounce the crimes of the Union and Progress Committee holding power in Istanbul.4 Even for the missionaries, engaged in rescuing the victims and eyewitnesses to the massacres, but also conscious of preserving the future of their work and their presence in Turkey, their priorities did not include the rescue of a population destined for the slaughterhouse.5 Proving the interest of a comparative approach for genocide studies, we can see some similarities with the American attitude towards the Holocaust, especially since we find some of the supporters of the Armenians, such as Henry Morgenthau and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, continuously alerting the authorities and public opinion to the fate of European Jews during the Second World War.


American Civil Liberty Union Armenian Genocide Foreign Mission American Committee Jewish Theological Seminary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adalian, R. P. (2003) L’ambassadeur Morgenthau et l’élaboration de la politique américaine de protestation et d’intervention contre le génocide (1914–1915), in Georges Bensoussan, Claire Mouradian & Yves Ternon (eds.), Revue d’Histoire de la Shoah, Ailleurs, hier, autrement: connaissance et reconnaissance du génocide des Arméniens (Paris: Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine): 177–178, 425–435.Google Scholar
  2. Armenian National Committee of Canada (1985), Le Genocide armenien dans la presse canadienne/The Armenian Genocide in the Canadian Press, II, 1916–1923 (Montréal).Google Scholar
  3. Auron, Y. (2001) The Banality of Indifference, Zionism and the Armenian Genocide (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction).Google Scholar
  4. Balakian, P. (2003) The Burning Tigris. The Armenian Genocide and America’s response. A History of International Human Rights and Forgotten Heroes (New York: Harper & Collins).Google Scholar
  5. Barton, L. J. (comp.) (1998) Turkish Atrocities. Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915–1917 (Ann Arbor, MI: Gomidas Institute).Google Scholar
  6. Beylérian, A. (1983) Les Grandes Puissances, l’Empire ottoman et les Arméniens dans les archives françaises (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne).Google Scholar
  7. Bloch, J. and I. A. Pratt (Dec. 1936) Richard James Horatio Gottheil, 1862–1936, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 56, 4, 472–489.Google Scholar
  8. British Parliament (1895) British Parliament Blue Books series (Turkey, 1895–1898) (London: Harrison & Sons).Google Scholar
  9. Cillière, A. (2010) 1895, in G. Dédeyan, C. Mouradian and Y. Ternon (eds.), Massacres d’Arméniens, (Toulouse: Privat).Google Scholar
  10. Creighton, L. (1967) Frank Mason North: His Social and Ecumenical Mission (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press).Google Scholar
  11. Cuti, M. (1963) American Philanthropy abroad (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press)Google Scholar
  12. Eliot, C. W. (1924) A Late Harvest (edited by M. A. de Wolfe Howe) (Boston: Atlantic Press).Google Scholar
  13. Eliot, C. W. (1926) Charles W. Eliot, the Man and His Beliefs (edited by W. A. Neilson) (New York: Harpers).Google Scholar
  14. Ellis, J. T. (1952) The Life of James Cardinal Gibbons (Milwaukee, MN: Bruce).Google Scholar
  15. Ghazarian, V. (ed.) (1997) Boghos Nubar’s Papers and the Armenian Question, 1915–1918 (Monterey, CA: Mayreni).Google Scholar
  16. Grabill, J. L. (1971) Protestant Diplomacy and the Near East: Missionary Influence in American Policy, 1810–1927 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).Google Scholar
  17. Hapgood, D. (2000), Charles R. Crane: The Man who Bet on People (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation).Google Scholar
  18. Kloian, R. D. (ed.) (1985), The Armenian Genocide. News Accounts from the American Press: 1915–1922 (Berkeley: Anto Printing).Google Scholar
  19. Krafft-Bonnard, A. (1922) L’heure de l’Arménie (Geneva).Google Scholar
  20. Lynch, F. H. (1920) Personal Recollections of Andrew Carnegie (Whitefish, MT: Kessenger).Google Scholar
  21. Malkasian, M. (1984) The disintegration of the Armenian Cause in the United States, 1918–1927, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16: 349–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mardiganian, A. (1918) Ravished Armenia. The Story of Aurora Mardiganian, the Christian Girl who survived the Great Massacres (New York: Kingfield Press).Google Scholar
  23. Medoff, R. (2005) Were US Jews powerless during the Holocaust? Another View, New Jersey Jewish News, November 10.Google Scholar
  24. Meyrier, G. (2000) Les Massacres de Diarbékir. Correspondance diplomatique du viceconsul de France, 1894–1896, edited by Claire Mouradian & Michel Durand-Meyrier (Paris: l’Inventaire).Google Scholar
  25. Ministère des Affaires étrangères (1897), Affaires arméniennes. Projets de réformes dans l’Empire ottoman, 1893–1897, Documents diplomatiques (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, Livre Jaune).Google Scholar
  26. Morgenthau, H. (2003 [1918]) Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story, edited by Peter Balakian (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press).Google Scholar
  27. Morgenthau, H. (1984 [1919]) Mémoires, suivis de documents inédits du Département d’État (Paris: Flammarion).Google Scholar
  28. Musée de Montmartre (2007), Arménie, une passion française. Le mouvement armé- nophile en France, edited by Claire Mouradian (Paris: Magellan).Google Scholar
  29. Payaslian, S. (2006) United States Foreign Policy toward the Armenian Question and the Armenian Genocide (Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillan).Google Scholar
  30. Peltekian, K. (2013) The Times of the Armenian Genocide: Reports in the British Press, 2 Vols. (Beirut: Four Roads).Google Scholar
  31. Peterson, M. (2004) The Starving Armenians (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press).Google Scholar
  32. Phillips, P. T. (1996) A Kingdom on Earth. Anglo-American Social Christianity, 1880–1940 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press).Google Scholar
  33. Raider, M. A. (1998) The Emergence of American Zionism (New York University Press).Google Scholar
  34. Reinharz, J. (1992a) His Majesty’s Zionist Emissary: Chaim Weizmann’s Mission to Gibraltar in 1917, Journal of Contemporary History, 27(2): 259–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reinharz, J. (1992b) The Balfour Declaration and Its Maker: A Reassessment, The Journal of Modern History, 64(3): 455–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rockwell, W. W. (1916), The Deportation of the Armenians Described from Day to Day by a Kind Woman Somewhere in Turkey (New York: American Committee for Armenian and Syrian relief).Google Scholar
  37. Rockwell, W. W. (1916) The Pitiful Plight Of the Assyrian Christians in Persia and Kurdistan, Described from the Reports of eye-witnesses (2nd edn) (New York: American Committee for Armenian and Syrian relief).Google Scholar
  38. Rockwell, W. W. (1916) Armenia. A List of Books and Articles (White Plains, NY: H. W. Wilson).Google Scholar
  39. Sarafian, A. (1994) The Paper Trail: The American State Department and the Report of Committee on Armenian Atrocities, Revue du Monde arménien moderne et contemporain, vol. I: 127–160.Google Scholar
  40. Stein, L. (1983) The Balfour Declaration (Jerusalem: University of Jerusalem Press).Google Scholar
  41. Toynbee, A. J. (2004) Les Massacres des Arméniens. Le meurtre d’une nation (1915–1916), edited by Claire Mouradian (Paris: Payot).Google Scholar
  42. Urofski, M. I. (1982) A Voice That Spoke for Justice: the Life and Times of Stephen S. Wise. (Albany: State University of New York Press).Google Scholar
  43. Tuchman, B. W. (1977) The Assimilationist Dilemma: Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story, Commentary, January 5: 58–62.Google Scholar
  44. Werfel, F. (2012) The Forty days of Musa Dagh (London: Jarrolds).Google Scholar
  45. Winter, J. (ed.) (2003) America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  46. Wise, S. (1901) The Improvement of the Moral Qualities. An Ethical Treatise of the Eleventh Century by Solomon ibn Gabirol, printed from a unique Arabic manuscript, together with a translation and an essay on the place of Gabirol in the history of the development of Jewish ethics (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  47. Wise, S. (1906) Open Letter to the Members of Temple Emanuel of New York on the Freedom of the Jewish Pulpit (New York: Bushing & Co).Google Scholar
  48. Wise, S. (n.d) Free Synagogue Pulpit, Sermons and Adresses by Stephen Wise, 1910–1922 (New York).Google Scholar
  49. Wise, S. (1930) The Great Betrayal (New York: Brentano’s)Google Scholar
  50. Wise, S. (1949) Challenging Years, an autobiography (New York: Putnam & Sons).Google Scholar
  51. Wise, S. (1956) The personal letters, edited by Justine Wise Polier and James Waterman Wise (New York: Beacon Press).Google Scholar
  52. Wise S. (1965) Letters on Zionism, 1898–1936 (Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press).Google Scholar
  53. Wise S. (1969) Servant of the People. Selected letters, edited by Carl Hermann Voss (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America).Google Scholar
  54. Yale, W. (1949) Ambassador Henry Morgenthau’s Special Mission of 1917, World Politics, 1(3): 308–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Claire Mouradian 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Mouradian

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations