Organisational Consortiums: The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC)

  • John E. Scanlon
  • Lisa Farroway
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Green Criminology book series (PSGC)

Abstract

Illicit trafficking of wildlife and forest products is a global issue with devastating consequences for the conservation of wild fauna and flora, the sustainability of commercially important natural resources, and the national economies and rural livelihoods that depend upon them (see Scanlon, 2012a). Despite considerable efforts over many years to combat it, wildlife crime remains an intractable challenge. It is precipitated by a complex and interacting array of economic, social, and environmental factors (ICCWC, 2012; Lawson and Vines, 2014), and the efficacy of responses against it are hampered by issues as diverse as insufficient law enforcement capacity, weak governance and corruption, and a lack of coordination across the enforcement chain (Bennett, 2011; ICCWC, 2012; CITES, 2013a). The complexity of the challenge has been exacerbated by the involvement of transnational organised crime groups (UNODC, 2010), raising further capacity constraints among frontline enforcement authorities and drawing attention to potential links between wildlife crime and national and regional security (INTERPOL, 2014a).

Keywords

Shipping Lution Tate Dinated Reso 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett, E.L. (2011), ‘Another Inconvenient Truth: The Failure of Enforcement Systems to Save Charismatic Species’, Oryx, 45(4), 476–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Secretariat) (2002), Enforcement Matters. Document CoP12 Doc. 27 prepared for the 12th meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties, 3–15 November. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/12/doc/E12-27.pdf
  3. CITES (2007), Enforcement Matters. Document CoP14 Doc. 25 prepared for the 14th meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties, 3–15 June. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/14/doc/E14-25.pdf
  4. CITES (2009), Enforcement Matters. Document CoP15 Doc. 24 prepared for the 15th meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties, 13–25 March 2010. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/15/doc/E15-24.pdf
  5. CITES (2011a), ICCWC Begins Its Work [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2011/20110301_ICCWC.shtml
  6. CITES (2011b), Controlled Deliveries: A Tool for Reaching the Big Players in Illegal Wildlife Trafficking [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2011/20111219_cd_workshop.php
  7. CITES (2011c), Launch of the CITES Virtual College: Providing Creative and Cost-effective Capacity-building for CITES [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2011/20110607_VC.php
  8. CITES (2012a), World’s Wild Tiger Range Countries Agree on Police and Customs Enforcement Measures for Nearly-extinct Species [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2012/20120214_tiger_bkk.php CITES (2012b), Web-based Course for Customs Now Available on the CITES Virtual College [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sun-dry/2012/20120719_VC_customs.php
  9. CITES (2012c), ICCWC Launches Wildlife and Forest Crime Toolkit [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2012/20120725_ICCWC_toolkit. php
  10. CITES (2013a), Chair’s Summary of Roundtable on Combating Transnational Organised Crime for Ministers and High-level Representatives. Document CoP16 Inf. 54 prepared for the 16th meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties, 3–14 March. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/16/inf/E-CoP16i-54.pdf
  11. CITES (2013b), Heads of Global Consortium to Fight Wildlife Crime Meet to Discuss Future Strategies to Combat Transnational Organised Wildlife and Forest Crime [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2013/20130305_ iccwc.php
  12. CITES (2013c), ICCWC Delivers Specialised Training for Wildlife Law Enforcement Officers. Increased Collaboration between African and Asian Countries Encouraged [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2013/2013 1104_iccwc_training.php
  13. CITES (2013d), Forensics to Support the Fight against Wildlife Crime [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2013/20131106_forensics.php
  14. CITES (2013e), ICCWC Deploys a Wildlife Incident Support Team (WIST) to Sri Lanka [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2013/20130725_iccwc_wist_Srilanka.php
  15. CITES (2013f), ICCWC Delivers Specialised Training for Law Enforcement Officers [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2013/20130313_iccwc_training.php
  16. CITES (2013g), Source, Transit and Destination Countries Meet to Develop Concrete Strategies and Actions to Combat the Poaching of Rhinoceros and the Illegal Trade in Rhinoceros Horn [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2013/20131031_rhino_task-force.php
  17. CITES (2013h), First Global Meeting of Wildlife Enforcement Networks Highlights Importance of Cross-border Cooperation to Combat Transnational Organized Wildlife and Forest Crime [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2013/20130307_wen.php
  18. CITES (2013i), ICCWC Launches Report of the First Global Meeting of the Wildlife Enforcement Networks and Prepares Strategy for Continued Support [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2013/20130715_wen_report. php
  19. CITES (2013j), Ministers Come Together in Bangkok to Discuss the Serious Nature of Transnational Organized Wildlife and Forest Crime [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/pr/2013/20130305_ministerial.php
  20. CITES (2014a), Illegal Wildlife Trade: Recent High-level Events and Initiatives. Available at http://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/news/pr/CITES%20Jun%202014_Illegal%20wildlife%20trade%20attention_narrative.pdf
  21. CITES (2014b), CITES Secretariat Submission to the ‘Consultation on the EU Approach Against Wildlife Trafficking’. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/con-sultations/wildlife_trafficking_en.htm
  22. CITES (2014c), ICCWC Senior Experts Group Meets in Geneva to Review Delivery of Activities to Combat Wildlife Crime [Press release]. Available at http://cites.org/eng/node/16218
  23. CITES (2014d), International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC). Document SC65 Doc. 16.4 prepared for the 65th meeting of the CITES Standing Committee, 7–11 July. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/ com/sc/65/E-SC65-16-04.pdf
  24. CITES (2014e), CITES Secretariat Welcomes Operation Cobra II Results [Press release]. Available at http://cites.org/eng/news/sundry/2014/20140210_operation_cobra_ ii.php
  25. CITES, ICPO-INTERPOL, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Bank and World Customs Organisation (2010), Letter of Understanding: Establishing the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/i/iccwc/mou_0.pdf
  26. Fedotov, Y. (2013), Poaching and Illicit Wildlife Trafficking: A Multidimensional Crime and Growing Challenge to the International Community. Remarks at 68th UN General Assembly side event, 26 September, New York. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/news/sg/2013/unodc_ed_statement.pdf
  27. Haken, J. (2011), Transnational Crime in the Developing World. Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available at http://www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/gfi_transnational_crime_high-res.pdf
  28. Horne, D. (2013a), Policy Responses to Transnational Wildlife Crime in the Asia-Pacific. Part 1: Global and Regional Policy Context and a Potential Framework for Optimal National Policy. Transnational Environmental Crime Project, Working Paper 1/2013. Canberra: Australian National University. Available at http://ips.cap.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/IPS/IR/TEC/TEC_Working_Paper_Part%20 1_2013_PolicyResponses_to_Transnational_Wildlife_Crime_in_the_Asia-Pacific.pdf
  29. Horne, D. (2013b), Policy Responses to Transnational Wildlife Crime in the Asia-Pacific. Part 2: Policy Responses at the National Level and Preliminary Gap Analysis. Transnational Environmental Crime Project, Working Paper 2/2013. Canberra: Australian National University. Available at http://ips.cap.anu.edu.au/sites/ default/files/IPS/IR/TEC/TEC_Working_Paper_Part2_2013_PolicyResponses_to_Transnational_Wildlife.Crime_in_the.Asia-Pacific.pdf
  30. ICCWC (International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime) (2012), Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit (Revised edition). New York: United Nations. Available at http://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/Toolkit_e.pdf
  31. ICCWC (2014a), International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime Strategic Mission 2014–2016. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/ prog/iccwc/ICCWC_Strategic_Mission-WEB.pdf
  32. ICCWC (2014b), International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime Annual Report 2013. Available at http://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/prog/iccwc/ ICCWC_Annual_Report_2013-WEB.pdf
  33. INTERPOL (2011), Connecting Police: I-24/7. INTERPOL Fact Sheet. Lyon: INTERPOL. Available at http://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-media/Publications/Fact-sheets/Connecting-police-I-24-7/
  34. INTERPOL (2013), INTERPOL Testing of Tusk DNA from Seized Ivory in Sri Lanka to Help Combat Wildlife Crime [Press release]. Available at http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News/2013/N20130719
  35. INTERPOL (2014a), Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Committee: Meeting and Events — Final Report. Lyon: INTERPOL. Available at http://www.interpol.int/Media/Files/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/Meetings/International-Chiefs-of-Environmental-Compliance-and-Enforcement-201203/ Environmental-Compliance-and-Enforcement-Committee,-Meeting-and-Events-%E2%80%93-Final-Report
  36. INTERPOL (2014b), Assessment of Enforcement Responses to Tiger Crime: Executive Summary. Lyon: INTERPOL. Available at http://www.interpol.int/content/download/24206/230050/version/1/file/Executive%20Summary%20-%20 Assessment%20of%20Enforcement%20Responses%20to%20Tiger%20Crime. pdf
  37. LATF (Lusaka Agreement Task Force) and CITES MA (Management Authority) of China (2014), African, Asian and North American Law Enforcement Officers Team Up to Apprehend Wildlife Criminals [Press release]. Available at http://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/news/sundry/2014/operation_cobra_ii_pr.pdf
  38. Lawson, K. and Vines, A. (2014), Global Impacts of the Illegal Wildlife Trade: The Costs of Crime, Insecurity and Institutional Erosion. London: Chatham House (The Royal Institute of International Affairs). Available at http://www.chatham-house.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Research/Africa/0214Wildlife.pdf
  39. London Declaration (2014), London Conference on the Illegal Wildlife Trade, 12–13 February 2014: Declaration. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/281289/london-wildlife-confer-ence-declaration-140213.pdf
  40. Nellemann, C. (2012), Green Carbon, Black Trade: Illegal Logging, Tax Fraud and Laundering in the World’s Tropical Forests. A Rapid Response Assessment. Nairobi and Arendal: United Nations Environment Program and GRID-Arendal. Available at https://www.google.ch/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&c d=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.unep. org%2Fpdf%2FRRAlogging_english_scr.pdf&ei=7OLuVPLRHMH5PJu4gfAE&usg=AFQjCNFGkmn6kC99V-EtdyxGUW_7AvUGGw&sig2=eaC5E4Ww8e5KplrZrRtXgQ&bvm=bv.86956481,d.ZWU
  41. Nellemann, C., Henrikson, R., Raxter, P., Ash, N., and Mrema, E. (eds) (2014), The Environmental Crime Crisis: Threats to Sustainable Development from Illegal Exploitation and Trade in Wildlife and Forest Resources. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. Nairobi and Arendal: United Nations Environment Program and GRID-Arendal. Available at http://www.unep.org/unea/docs/rracrimecrisis.pdf
  42. Pink, G. (2013), Law Enforcement Responses to Transnational Environmental Crime: Choices, Challenges, and Culture. Transnational Environmental Crime Project, Working Paper 4/2013. Canberra: Australian National University. Available at http://ips.cap.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/IPS/IR/TEC/TEC_Working_Paper_4_2013_1_Grant_Pink_Law_Enforcement_Responses.pdf
  43. Scanlon, J.E. (2012a), Ivory and Insecurity: The Global Implications of Poaching in Africa. Written testimony to the United States of America Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing, 24 May, Washington, DC. Available at http://cites.org/eng/news/sg/2012/20120525_SG_US-Senate_testimony.php
  44. Scanlon, J.E. (2012b), CITES: From Stockholm in ‘72 to Rio+20 — Back to the Future. Guest article for iisd Biodiversity Policy and Practice, posted 6 July 2012. Available at http://uncsd.iisd.org/guest-articles/cites-from-stockholm-in-%E2%80%9872-to-rio20-back-to-the-future/
  45. Scanlon, J.E. (2013), CITES CoP16, Bangkok 2013: A ‘Watershed Moment’ for Combating Wildlife Crime. Guest article for iisd Biodiversity Policy and Practice, posted 15 April 2013. Available at http://biodiversity-l.iisd.org/guest-articles/ cites-cop16-bangkok-2013-a-%E2%80%98watershed-moment%E2%80%99-for-combating-wildlife-crime/
  46. Scanlon, J.E. (2014a), CITES Secretary-General’s Remarks at the Symposium on International Wildlife Trafficking. A United for Wildlife event hosted by the Zoological Society of London, 11–12 February, London. Available at http://cites.org/eng/news/sg/2014/20140211_wildlife_crime_symposium. php
  47. Scanlon, J.E. (2014b), The International Dimension of Illegal Wildlife Trade. Presentation at a global symposium on environmental rule of law at the 1st session of the United Nations Environment Assembly, 24 June, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at http://cites.org/eng/international_dimension_of_illegal_wildlife_ trade
  48. UNEA (United Nations Environment Assembly) (2014), Ministerial Dialogue on Illegal Trade in Wildlife: President’s Summary. An event during the 1st session of the United Nations Environment Assembly, 26 June, Nairobi, Kenya. Advance unedited version. Available at http://www.unep.org/unea/docs/Summary%20 of%20minsiterial%20dialogue%20on%20illegal%20trade%20in%20wildlife. pdf (accessed 7 September 2014).
  49. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (2014), UNEP Yearbook: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment 2014. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Program. Available at http://www.unep.org/yearbook/2014/
  50. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) (2010), The Globalisation of Crime: A Transnational Organised Crime Threat Assessment. Vienna: United Nations. Available at https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/ tocta/TOCTA_Report_2010_low_res.pdf
  51. UNODC (2011), Estimating Illicit Financial Flows Resulting from Drug Trafficking and Other Transnational Organized Crimes. Vienna: United Nations. Available at https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Illicit_financial_ flows_2011_web.pdf
  52. UNODC (2013), Wildlife and Forest Crime (WLFC): Report on the Implementation of the Toolkit in Bangladesh. Vienna: United Nations. Available at http://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/Bangladesh_Report_Toolkit_2013_FINAL.pdf
  53. UNODC (2014a), Guidelines on Methods and Procedures for Ivory Sampling and Laboratory Analysis. Vienna: United Nations. Available at http://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/Guidelines_Ivory.pdfGoogle Scholar
  54. UNODC (2014b), Expert Group on Timber Analysis Meets in Vienna [Press release]. Available at http://www.cites.org/eng/node/16878
  55. UNODC and WCO (World Customs Organisation) (2013), UNODC-WCO Container Control Programme: Annual Progress Report. Vienna and Brussels: United Nations and WCO. Available at http://www.unodc.org/documents/ drug_tramcking/horizontal_initiatives/Annual_Report_2013-EN.pdf
  56. WCO (n.d.), Customs Enforcement Network Communication Platform (CENcomm) [website]. Available at http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/cen-suite/cencomm.aspx
  57. Wyatt, T. (2013), Wildlife Trafficking: A Deconstruction of the Crime, the Victims, and the Offenders. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wyler, L.S. and Sheikh, P.A. (2013), International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and US Policy. CRS Report for Congress, 7–5700, RL34395. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Available at http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34395.pdfGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John E. Scanlon and Lisa Farroway 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Scanlon
  • Lisa Farroway

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations