BRICS and Capitalist Hegemony: Passive Revolution in Theory and Practice

  • Ian Taylor
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


In May 2008, Russia hosted the first formal summit between Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) in Yekaterinburg; in December 2010, South Africa was formally invited to join the BRIC group of large emerging economies (BRICS). The BRIC acronym was originally coined in 2001 by Jim O’Neill, chief economist for Goldman Sachs, when the global investment banking and securities firm advanced the argument that these emerging economies (or “contender states” engaged in a catchup struggle — see van der Pijl, 2006) were likely to surpass the traditional economic powerhouses of the global economy by 2040 (O’Neill, 2001).


Foreign Direct Investment Gross Domestic Product Foreign Policy Global Governance World Order 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amsden, A., 2001. The Rise of “The Rest”: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrialising Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arkhangelskaya, A., 2012. “Images and Prospects of BRICS in Africa,” Paper presented at Congreso Ibérico de Estudios Africanos, Madrid, Spain, June 14–16, 2012.Google Scholar
  3. Bradford, C. and Lim, W., (eds.) 2011. Global Leadership in Transition: Making the G20 More Effective and Responsive. Seoul: Korea Development Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Callinicos, A., 2005. “Imperialism and Global Economy.” International Socialism, 108, 109–127.Google Scholar
  5. Cameron, F., 2011. The EU and the BRICs. Loughborough: Diplomatic System of the European Union, Policy Paper 3.Google Scholar
  6. Cargill, T., 2010. Our Common Strategic Interests: Africa’s Role in the Post-G8 World. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  7. Chase, R., Hill, E. and Kennedy, P., (eds.) 1999. The Pivotal States: A New Framework for US Policy in the Developing World. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, M., 2010. “Don’t Count the West Out Yet”, LSE Research Magazine, 2.
  9. Cox, R. 1983. “Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: An Essay in Method.” Millennium, 12,2, 124–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox, R. 1989. “Middlepowermanship, Japan and Future World Order”, International Journal, 44(4), Autumn.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, R., 1996. Approaches to World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crouch, C., 2011. The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dadush, U. and Stancil, B. 2009. The World Order in 2050. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment.Google Scholar
  14. Desai, R., 2007. “Dreaming in Technicolour? India as a BRIC.” International Journal, 62(4), 779–803.Google Scholar
  15. Engels, F., 1845/1975. “The Condition of the Working Class in England.” In K. Marx and F. Engels (eds.) Collected Works. London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 4.Google Scholar
  16. Errunza, V., 1983. “Emerging Markets: A New Opportunity for Improving Global Portfolio Performance.” Financial Analysts Journal, 39(5), 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferguson, N., 2011. Civilization: The West and the Rest. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  18. Finer, H., 1963. Road to Reaction. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.Google Scholar
  19. Gale, F., 1998. “Cave ‘Cave! Hic Dragones’: A Neo-Gramscian Deconstruction and Reconstruction of International Regime Theory.” Review of International Political Economy, 5(2), 252–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garten, J., 1997. The Big Ten: The Big Emerging Markets and How They Will Change Our Lives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Germain, R., 2009. “Financial Order and World Politics: Crisis, Change and Continuity.” International Affairs, 85(4), 669–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gramsci, A., 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.Google Scholar
  23. Hall, P., 1993. “Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain.” Comparative Politics, 25(3), 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harvey, D., 2003. The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Heinz, D. and Tomenendal, M., 2012. “The Emerging Market Hype: Putting Market Size and Growth in BRIC Countries into Perspective.” Critical Perspectives on International Business, 8(3), 241–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holbraad, C., 1984. Middle Powers in International Politics. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hurrell, A., 2001. “The Role of Intermediate Powers in International Institutions.” In Andrew Hurrell, A., Cooper, A., González, G., Ubiraci, R. and Sitaraman, S. (eds.) Paths to Power: Foreign Policy Strategies of Intermediate States. Washington, DC: Wilson Center, Working Paper 244, 3–4.Google Scholar
  28. Ikenberry, J. and Wright, T., 2008. “Rising Powers and Global Institutions: A Century Foundation Report.” New York: The Century Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Jordaan, E., 2003. “The Concept of a Middle Power in International Relations: Distinguishing between Emerging and Traditional Middle Powers.” Politikon, 30(2), 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kiely, R., 2012. “Spatial Hierarchy and/or Contemporary Geopolitics: What Can and Can’t Uneven and Combined Development Explain?” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25(2), 231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kose, M. A. and Prasad, E. S., 2010. “Emerging Markets Come of Age.” Finance and Development, December, 7–10.Google Scholar
  32. Lai, K. (2006) “Imagineering” Asian Emerging Markets: Financial Knowledge Networks in the Fund Management Industry”, Geoforum, 37, 627–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Laïdi, Z., 2012. “BRICS: Sovereignty Power and Weakness.” International Politics, 49(5), 614–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lavelle, K., 2000. “The International Finance Corporation and the Emerging Market Funds Industry.” Third World Quarterly, 21(2), 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lenin, V., 1917/1966. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. Moscow: Progress.Google Scholar
  36. Marx, K., 1858/1973. Grundrisse. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  37. Merrington, J. 1977. ‘Theory and Practice of Gramsci’s Marxism’ in Western Marxism: A Critical Reader. London: New Left Review.Google Scholar
  38. Michailova, S., McCarthy, D. and Puffer, S., 2013. “Russia: As Solid as a BRIC?” Critical Perspectives on International Business, 9(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mittelman, J. and Pasha, M. K., 1997. Out From Underdevelopment Revisited: Changing Global Structures and the Remaking of World Order. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Neufeld, M., 1995. “Hegemony and Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of Canada as a Middle Power.” Studies in Political Economy, 48, Autumn, 7–29.Google Scholar
  41. O’Neill, J., 2001. Building Better Global Economic BRICs, Goldman Sachs, Global Economics Paper 66. London: Goldman Sachs.Google Scholar
  42. O’Neill, J., 2011. The Growth Map: Economic Opportunity in the BRICs and Beyond. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  43. Parrish, K., 2011. “Panetta Assesses National Security Threats.” American Forces Press Service, September 7.Google Scholar
  44. Payne, A. and Gamble, A., 1996. “The Political Economy of Regionalism and World Order.” In A. Gamble and A. Payne (eds.) Regionalism and World Order, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. President of Russia, 2009. “Excerpts from Conversation with Channel One Current Affairs Programme Anchor Kirill Kleimenov.” Barvikha, Moscow Region, June 18.Google Scholar
  46. Roberts, C., 2010. “Russia’s BRICs Diplomacy: Rising Outsider with Dreams of an Insider.” Polity, 42(1), 38–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scholvin, S., 2010 “Emerging Non-OECD Countries: Global Shifts in Power and Geopolitical Regionalization.” Working Paper 128. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies.Google Scholar
  48. Scott, D., 2007. China Stands Up: The PRC and the International System. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Sharma, R., 2012. “Broken BRICs: Why the Rest Stopped Rising.” Foreign Affairs, 91(6), 2–7.Google Scholar
  50. Sidaway, J., 2012. “Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions?” Professional Geographer, 64(1), 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, S., 2005. “The Contested Concept of Security.” In K. Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 27–62.Google Scholar
  52. Spengler, O., 1991. The Decline of the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Swann, C., 2012. “Endless Campaign.” Breakingviews, April 23.Google Scholar
  54. Taylor, I., 2005. NEPAD: Towards Africa’s Development or Another False Start? Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  55. van Agtmael, A., 2012. “Think Again: The BRICS.” Foreign Policy, November,
  56. van Apeldoorn, B. and de Graaff, N., 2012. “The Limits of Open Door Imperialism and the US State-Capital Nexus.” Globalizations, 9(4), 593–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. van Apeldoorn, B., de Graaff, N. and Overbeek, H., 2012. “The Reconfiguration of the Global State-Capital Nexus.” Globalizations, 9(4), 471–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van Apeldoorn, B. and Overbeek, H., 2012. Neoliberalism in Crisis. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  59. van der Pijl, K., 2006. Global Rivalries: From the Cold War to Iraq. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  60. van der Pijl, K., 2012. “Is the East Still Red? The Contender State and Class Struggles in China.” Globalizations, 9(4), 503–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wade, R., 2003. “What Strategies are Viable for Developing Countries Today? The World Trade Organization and the Shrinking of ‘Development Space’”, Review of International Political Economy, 10(4).Google Scholar
  62. Westra, R., 2012. The Evil Axis of Finance: The US-Japan-China Stranglehold on the Global Future. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press.Google Scholar
  63. White House, 2010. National Security Strategy. Washington, DC: The White House.Google Scholar
  64. Wood, B., 1988. “The Middle Powers and the General Interest.” In Middle Powers and the International System. Ottawa: North South Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ian Taylor 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Taylor

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations