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The International Court of Justice and the Armenian Genocide

  • Susan L. Karamanian
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide book series (PSHG)

Abstract

The Ottoman Empire’s massacre of Armenians in 1915–16 is one of the early genocides of the 20th century.2 Suggestions about how to provide legal accountability to the Armenians range from the filing of lawsuits in municipal courts,3 to the establishment of a claims process similar to that for victims of the Nazi Holocaust,4 to the creation of a truth and reconciliation commission like that established in South Africa to address apartheid.5

Keywords

International Criminal Rome Statute State Party Advisory Opinion Genocide Convention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 3.
    For example, M. J. Bazyler (2011) ‘From Lamentation and Liturgy to Litigation: The Holocaust-Era Restitution Movement as a Model for Bringing Armenian Genocide-Era Restitution Suits in American Courts’, Marquette Law Review, Vol. 95 (1): 245.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    V. Saroyan (2011) ‘A Lesson from the Holocaust Restitution Movement for Armenians: Generate Momentum to Secure Restitution’, Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13 (1): 285. See also Chapter 6, Guibert and Kim.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    J. Shamsey (2002) ‘80 Years Too Late: The International Criminal Court and the 20th-Century’s First Genocide’, Journal of Transnational Law & Policy, Vol. 11(2): 327, 378–81.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    A. Kuyumjian (2011) ‘The Armenian Genocide: International Legal and Political Avenues for Turkey’s Responsibility’, Revue de Droit Université de Sherbrooke, Vol. 41(2): 247, 280–7.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    The ICJ is constrained as to fact-finding, particularly on the requisite intent for genocide. See D. Groome (2007) ‘Adjudicating Genocide: Is the International Court of Justice Capable of Judging State Criminal Responsibility?’, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 31 (4): 911, 979.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    P. Dunberry (2014) ‘The Consequences of Turkey Being the “Continuing” State of the Ottoman Empire in Terms of International Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts’, International Criminal Law Review, Vol. 14 (2): 261.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Akçam (2012), pp. 228–85; R. Kévorkian (2011) The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History ( London: I. B. Tauris);Google Scholar
  8. U. Ü. Üngör and M. Polatel (2011) Confiscation and Destruction: The Young Turk Seizure of Armenian Property ( London and New York: Continuum).Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    V. N. Dadrian and T. Akçam (2011) Judgment at Istanbul: The Armenian Genocide Trials ( New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books ), pp. 13, and 18 (quoting Interior Ministry Archives, D.H. Cipher Office, SFR File 54.426, 13 July 1915 report).Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    For example, see V. N. Dadrian (2004) ‘The Armenian Genocide: An Interpretation’, in J. Winter (ed.) America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ), pp. 52–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 18.
    E. Schwelb (1946) ‘Crimes against Humanity’, British Yearbook of International Law, XXIII, pp. 178, and 181. See also Chapter 10, Chorbajian, for the Allied Powers’ telegram of 29 May 1915.Google Scholar
  12. 30.
    T. Akçam (1999) ‘The Genocide of the Armenians and The Silence of the Turks’, in L. Chorbajian and G. Shirinian (eds), Studies in Comparative Genocide ( New York: St Martin’s Press ), pp. 125, and 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 31.
    B. Algan (2008) ‘The Brand New Version of Article 301 of Turkish Penal Code and the Future of Freedom of Expression Cases in Turkey’, German Law Journal, Vol. 9 (12): 2237–45.Google Scholar
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    P. Gaeta (2007) ‘On What Conditions Can a State Be Held Responsible for Genocide?’, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 18 (4): 631–48, (631, 642).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 40.
    W. A. Schabas (2006) The UN International Criminal Tribunals: Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ), p. 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 43.
    C. J. Tams, L. Berster and B. Schiffbauer (2014) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: A Commentary (Munich: C. H. Beck, Hart Publishing & Nomos ), p. 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 48.
    B. Simma (2013) ‘Human Rights before the International Court of Justice: Community Interest Coming to Life?’, in J. Sloan and C. J. Tams (eds) The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice ( Oxford: Oxford University Press ), pp. 301, and 319.Google Scholar
  18. 71.
    J. Alvarez (2007) ‘Burdens Of Proof–Notes from the President’, American Society of International Law Newsletter, No. 23: 1.Google Scholar
  19. 73.
    M. Milanović (2007) ‘State Responsibility for Genocide: A Follow-Up’, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17 (3): 669, 678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 89.
    See S. Power (2002) A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of the Genocide ( New York: Basic Books ), pp. 51–65.Google Scholar
  21. 119.
    R. Kolb (2009) ‘The Scope Ratione Materiae of the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the ICJ’, in P. Gaeta (ed.) The UN Genocide Convention: A Commentary ( Oxford: Oxford University Press ), pp. 442, and 464.Google Scholar
  22. 120.
    A. de Zayas (2004) The Genocide against the Armenians 1915–1923 and the Relevance of the 1948 Genocide Convention, http://alfreddezayas.com/Law_history/armlegopi.shtml.Google Scholar
  23. 139.
    C. Fournet (2007) The Crime of Destruction and the Law of Genocide ( Aldershot, UK: Ashgate ), pp. 83–4.Google Scholar
  24. 144.
    S. L. Karamanian (2013) ‘Economic-Legal Aspects of the Armenian Genocide’, International Criminal Law Review, Vol. 14 (2): 242–60 (242 and 256–7).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Susan L. Karamanian 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan L. Karamanian
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington University Law SchoolUSA

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