When to Forge Alliances?

  • Hubert Gatignon
  • David Gotteland
  • Christophe Haon


The traditional approach to the development of new products and services is to perform research and development (R&D) internally to the firm (Doz and Hamel 1998, Chesbrough 2003). However, in the face of rapid evolution of consumers’ needs as well as the uncertainty of technological change, R&D activities are an area where alliances have been increasingly sought and have even played a dominant role (Shan 1990, Kogut 1991, Hagedoorn and Schakenraad 1994, Raassens, Wuyts and Geyskens 2012). According to Capron and Mitchell (2012), firms choose from among three alternatives, based on the firm’s existing capabilities and partnership characteristics: build, borrow, or buy.1 Indeed, firms do not always have or cannot necessarily acquire the competencies and know-how required for new product development (NPD) (see the discussion on innovation characteristics in Chapter 2). Such competencies may include (Capron and Mitchell 2012):
  1. 1.


  2. 2.


  3. 3.


  4. 4.


  5. 5.

    Broad competencies

  6. 6.

    Other assets



Transaction Cost Entry Mode Strategic Management Journal International Business Study Relational Embeddedness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achrol, R. S., Lisa K. Scheer, and Louis W. Stem (1989), “Transorganizational Systems: A Framework for Analyzing Strategic Alliance Behavior and Performance,” Working Paper, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Ahuja, Gautam (2000), “Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and Innovation: A Longitudinal Study,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 425–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amit, Raphael, and Paul Schoemaker (1993), “Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent,” Strategic Management Journal, 14(1), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, Erin (1985), “The Salesperson as Outside Agent or Employee: A Transaction Cost Analysis,” Marketing Science, 4(3), 234–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, Erin (1988), “Transaction Costs as Determinants of Opportunism in Integrated and Independent Sales Forces,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 9(3), 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, Erin, and Hubert Gatignon (1986), “Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions,” Journal of International Business Studies, 17(3), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, Erin, and Hubert Gatignon (2005), “Firms and the Creation of New Markets,” in Claude Ménard and Mary M. Shirley (Eds.), Handbook of New Institutional Economics, Berlin: Springer, Chapter 6, 401–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, Erin, and David C. Schmittlein (1984), “Integration of the Sales Force: An Empirical Examination,” The RAND Journal of Economics, 15(3), 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, Erin, and Barton Weitz (1989), “Determinants of Continuity in Conventional Industrial Channel Dyads,” Marketing Science, 8(4), 310–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson, Erin, and Barton A. Weitz (1992), “The Use of Pledges to Build and Sustain Commitment in Distribution Channels,” Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1), 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balakrishnan, Srinivasan, and Birger Wernerfelt (1986), “Technical Change, Competition and Vertical Integration,” Strategic Management Journal, 7(4), 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balconi, Margherita, Stefano Breschi, and Francesco Lissoni (2004), “Networks of Inventors and the Role of Academia: An Exploration of Italian Patent Data,” Research Policy, 33(1), 127–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baum, Joel A. C., Robin Cowan, and Nicolas Jonard (2010), “Network-Independent Partner Selection and the Evolution of Innovation Networks,” Management Science, 56(11), 2094–2110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bensaou, M., and Erin Anderson (1999), “Buyer-Supplier Relations in Industrial Markets: When Do Buyers Risk Making Idiosyncratic Investments?,” Organization Science, 10(4), 460–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blau, Peter M. (2013), “The Hierarchy of Authority in Organizations,” American Journal of Sociology, 73(4), 453–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borah, Abhishek, and Gerard J. Tellis (2014), “Make, Buy, or Ally? Choice of and Payoff from Announcements of Alternate Strategies for Innovations,” Marketing Science, 33(1), 114–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borys, Bryan, and David B. Jemison (1989), “Hybrid Arrangements as Strategic Alliances: Theoretical Issues in Organizational Combinations,” Academy of Management Review, 14(2), 234–249.Google Scholar
  18. Boyd, D. Eric, and Robert E. Spekman (2010), “The Licensing of Market Development Rights within Technology Alliances: A Shareholder Value Perspective,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(4), 593–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradach, Jeffrey L. (1997), “Using the Plural Form in the Management of Restaurant Chains,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(2), 276–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burgers, Willem P., Charles W. L. Hill, and W. Chan Kim (1993), “A Theory of Global Strategic Alliances: The Case of the Global Auto Industry,” Strategic Management Journal, 14(6), 419–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burt, Ronald S. (1995), Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cai, C. Jeffrey, and Arun Gopalakrisnnan (2014), “Competition and Collaboration in Technology Development,” Working Paper, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  23. Calixte, Laurent (2007), “Xerox Fait Déjà Meilleure Impression,” Challenges, 101(November 22), 71.Google Scholar
  24. Capron, Laurence (1999), “The Long-Term Performance of Horizontal Acquisitions,” Strategic Management Journal, 20(11), 987–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capron, Laurence, and Will Mitchell (2009), “Selection Capability: How Capability Gaps and Internal Social Frictions Affect Internal and External Strategic Renewal,” Organization Science, 20(2), 294–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Capron, Laurence, and Will Mitchell (2012), Build, Borrow, or Buy: Solving the Growth Dilemma, Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press Books.Google Scholar
  27. Chesbrough, Henry, and Kevin Schwartz (2007), “Innovating Business Models with Co-Development Partnerships,” Research Technology Management, 50(1), 55–59.Google Scholar
  28. Chesbrough, Henry W. (2003), Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Chung, Walter W. C. C., Anthony Y. K. K. Yam, and Michael F. S. S. Chan (2004), “Networked Enterprise: A New Business Model for Global Sourcing,” International Journal of Production Economics, 87(3), 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooper, Robert G. (1983), “The Impact of New Product Strategies,” Industrial Marketing Management, Elsevier Science Publishing, 12(4), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coughlan, Anne T., Erin M. Anderson, Louis W. Stern, and Adel I. Ansary (2006), Marketing Channels, 7th edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  32. Cui, Anna S., and Gina O’Connor (2012), “Alliance Portfolio Resource Diversity and Firm Innovation,” Journal of Marketing, 76(4), 24–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cvitanić, Jakša, Sonja Radas, and Hrvoje šikić (2011), “Co-Development Ventures: Optimal Time of Entry and Profit-Sharing,” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 35(10), 1710–1730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Pinho Camposa, Katia, Cameron D. Normana, and Alejandro R. Jadad (2011), “Product Development Public-Private Partnerships for Public Health: A Systematic Review Using Qualitative Data,” Social Science & Medicine, 73(7), 986–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deck, Mark, Mark Strom, and Kevin Schwartz (2001), “The Emerging Model of Co-Development,” PRTM White Paper.Google Scholar
  36. Doz, Yves L., and Gary Hamel (1998), Alliance Advantage: The Art of Creating Value through Partnering, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  37. Dunning, John H. (1980), “Toward an Eclectic Theory of International Production: Some Empirical Tests,” Journal of International Business Studies, 11(1), 9–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dwyer, F. Robert, Paul H. Schurr, and Sejo Oh (1987), “Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dyer, Jeffrey H. (1996), “Specialized Supplier Networks as a Source of Competitive Advantage: Evidence from the Auto Industry,” Strategic Management Journal, 17(4), 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fein, Adam J., and Erin Anderson (1997), “Patterns of Credible Commitments: Territory and Brand Selectivity in Industrial Distribution Channels,” Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Folta, Timothy B. (1998), “Governance and Uncertainty: The Trade-Off between Administrative Control and Commitment,” Strategic Management Journal, 19(11), 1007–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Folta, Timothy B., and Kent D. Miller (2002), “Real Options in Equity Partnerships,” Strategic Management Journal, 23(1), 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fombrun, C. J. (1982), “Strategies for Network Research in Organization,” Academy of Management Review, 7(2), 280–291.Google Scholar
  44. Friar, J., and M. Horwitz (1985), “The Emergence of Technology Strategy: A New Dimension of Strategic Management,” Technology in Society, 7(2–3), 143–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Galunic, D. Charles, and Erin Anderson (2000), “From Security to Mobility: Generalized Investments in Human Capital and Agent Commitment,” Organization Science, 11(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galunic, D. Charles, and Simon Rodan (1998), “Resource Recombinations in the Firm: Knowledge Structures and the Potential for Schumpeterian Recombination,” Strategic Management Journal, 19(12), 1193–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ganesan, Shankar, Alan J. Malter, and Aric Rindfleisch (2005), “Does Distance Still Matter? Geographic Proximity and New Product Development,” Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 44–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Garcia, Renato, Veneziano Araujo, and Suelene Mascarini (2013), “The Role of Geographic Proximity for University-Industry Linkages in Brazil: An Empirical Analysis,” Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 19(3), 433–456.Google Scholar
  49. Gatignon, Aline, and Hubert Gatignon (2010), “Erin Anderson and the Path Breaking Work of TCE in New Areas of Business Research: Transaction Costs in Action,” Journal of Retailing, 86(3), 232–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gatignon, Hubert, and Erin Anderson (1988), “The Multinational Corporation’s Degree of Control over Foreign Subsidiaries: An Empirical Test of a Transaction Cost Explanation,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4(2), 305–336.Google Scholar
  51. Goerzen, Anthony, and Paul W. Beamish (2005), “The Effect of Alliance Network Diversity on Multinational Enterprise Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, 26(4), 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Graham, M. (1985), “Corporate Research and Development: The Latest Transformation,” Technology in Society, 7(2–3), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Granovetter, Mark S. (1973), “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Granovetter, Mark S. (1983), “The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited,” Sociological Theory, 1, 201–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Greve, Henrich, Tim Rowley, and Andrew Shipilov (2014), Network Advantage: How to Unlock Value from Your Alliances and Partnerships, San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  56. Gulati, Ranjay (1998), “Alliances and Networks,” Strategic Management Journal, 19(4), 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hagedoorn, John (1993), “Understanding the Rationale of Strategic Technology Partnering: Interorganizational Modes of Cooperation and Sectoral Differences,” Strategic Management Journal, 14(5), 371–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hagedoorn, John, and Jos Schakenraad (1994), “The Effect of Strategic Technology Alliances on Company Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, 15(4), 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Han, Kunsoo, Wonseok Oh, Kun Shin Im, Ray M. Chang, Hyelim Oh, and Alain Pinsonneault (2012), “Value Cocreation and Wealth Spillover in Open Innovation Alliances,” MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
  60. Harrigan, Kathryn Rudie (1985), “Strategies for Intrafirm Transfers and Outside Sourcing,” Academy of Management Journal, 28(4), 914–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harrigan, Kathryn Rudie (1986), “Matching Vertical Integration Strategies to Competitive Conditions,” Strategic Management Journal, 7(6), 535–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harryson, Sigvald J., Rafal Dudkowski, and Alexander Stern (2008), “Transformation Networks in Innovation Alliances: The Development of Volvo C70,” Journal of Management Studies, 45(4), 745–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haspeslagh, Philippe, and David B. Jemison (1991), Managing Acquisitions, New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hayashi, Takayuki (2003), “Effect of R&D Programmes on the Formation of University-Industry-Government Networks: Comparative Analysis of Japanese R&D Programmes,” Research Policy, 32(8), 1421–1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heide, Jan B., and George John (1990), “Alliances in Industrial Purchasing: The Determinants of Joint Action in Buyer-Supplier Relationships,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27(1), 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Helfat, C. E., and M. B. Lieberman (2002), “The Birth of Capabilities: Market Entry and the Importance of Pre-History,” Industrial Corporate Change, 11(4), 725–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hennart, Jean-Frangois (1988), “A Transaction Costs Theory of Equity Joint Ventures,” Strategic Management Journal, 9(4), 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hennart, Jean-Frangois (2009), “Down with MNE-Centric Theories! Market Entry and Expansion as the Bundling of MNE and Local Assets,” Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1432–1454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hennart, Jean-Frangois (2010), “Transaction Cost Theory and International Business,” Journal of Retailing, 86(3), 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Houlder, V. (1995), “Revolution in Outsourcing,” Financial Times, January 6, 7.Google Scholar
  71. Jap, Sandy D. (1999), “Pie-Expansion Efforts: Collaboration Processes in Buyer-Supplier Relationships,” Journal of Marketing Research, 36(4), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jap, Sandy D., and Erin Anderson (2003), “Safeguarding Interorganizational Performance and Continuity under Ex Post Opportunism,” Management Science, 49(12), 1684–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. John, George, and Barton A. Weitz (1988), “Forward Integration: An Empirical Test of Transaction Cost Analysis,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4(2), 337–355.Google Scholar
  74. Kalaignanam, Kartik, Venkatesh Shankar, and Rajan Varadarajan (2007), “Asymmetric New Product Development Alliances: Win-Win or Win-Lose Partnerships?,” Management Science, 53(3), 357–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Katila, R., and A. Ahuja (2002), Something Old, Something New: A Longitudinal Study of Search Behavior and New Product Introduction,” Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1183–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaul, Anil, and Vithala R. Rao (1995), “Research for Product Positioning and Design Decisions: An Integrative Review,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 12(4), 293–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keil, Thomas, Markku Maula, Henri Schildt, and Shaker A. Zahra (2008), “The Effect of Governance Modes and Relatedness of External Business Development Activities on Innovative Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, 29(8), 895–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Klein, Saul, Gary L. Frazier, and Victor J. Roth (1990), “A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of Channel Integration in International Markets,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27(2), 196–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kogut, Bruce (1991), “Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire,” Management Science, 37(1), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kogut, Bruce, and Nalin Kulatilaka (2001), “Capabilities as Real Options,” Organization Science, 12(6), 744–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Koh, Jeongsuk, and N. Venkatraman (1991), “Joint Venture Formations and Stock Market Reactions: An Assessment in the Information Technology Sector,” Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), 869–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Krishnan, V., and Karl T. Ulrich (2001), “Product Development Decisions: A Review of the Literature,” Management Science, 47(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laursen, Keld, Toke Reichstein, and Peter Maskell (2008), “Co-Development of Products and Services, Formal Contracts, and the Effect on the Performance of Offshore Outsourced Activity: Danish Firm-Level Evidence,” Working Paper, Copenhagen Business School.Google Scholar
  84. Lawrence, P. R., and J. W. Lorsch (1967), Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Boston, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  85. Leonard-Barton, Dorothy (1992), “Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New Product Development,” Strategic Management Journal, 13(Summer), 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mahoney, Joseph T. (1992), “The Choice of Organizational Form: Vertical Financial Ownership versus Other Methods of Vertical Integration,” Strategic Management Journal, 13(8), 559–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McCracken, Harry (2013), “Ready, Set, Acquire: How Big Companies Build Their Future by Buying Little Ones,” Time, September 16, 12.Google Scholar
  88. Meyer, Klaus E., Mike Wright, and Sarika Pruthi (2009), “Managing Knowledge in Foreign Entry Strategies: A Resource-Based Analysis,” Strategic Management Journal, 30(5), 557–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mohr, Jakki, and John R. Nevin (1990), “Communication Strategies in Marketing Channels: A Theoretical Perspective,” Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mowery, David C., Joanne E. Oxley, and Brian S. Silverman (1996), “Strategic Alliances and Interfirm Knowledge Transfer,” Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nayak, P. R., and J. M. Ketteringham (1986), Breakthroughs!, New York, NY: Rawson Associates.Google Scholar
  92. Oxley, Joanne E. (1999), “Institutional Environment and the Mechanisms of Governance: The Impact of Intellectual Property Protection on the Structure of Inter-Firm Alliances,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 38(3), 283–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Oxley, Joanne E., and Rachelle C. Sampson (2004), “The Scope and Governance of International R&D Alliances,” Strategic Management Journal, 25(8–9), 723–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Oxley, Joanne, and Tetsuo Wada (2009), “Alliance Structure and the Scope of Knowledge Transfer: Evidence from U.S.-Japan Agreements,” Management Science, 55(4), 635–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik (1978), The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  96. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik (2003), The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.Google Scholar
  97. Pisano, Gary P. (1990), “The R&D Boundaries of the Firm: An Empirical Analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pisano, Gary P., Michael Russo, and David J. Teece (1988), “Joint Ventures and Collaborative Arrangements in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry,” in D. Mowery (Ed.), International Collaborative Ventures in U.S. Manufacturing, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company, 23–70.Google Scholar
  99. Powell, Walter W. (1987), “Hybrid Organizational Arrangements: New Form or Transitional Development?,” California Management Review, 30(Summer), 67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Powell, Walter W. (1990), “Neither Hierarchy nor Market: Network Forms of Organization,” in B. M. Shaw and L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 295–336.Google Scholar
  101. Powell, Walter W., Kenneth W. Koput, and Laurel Smith-Doerr (1996), “Interorganizational Collaboration and the Locus of Innovation: Networks of Learning in Biotechnology,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Quinn, James Brian (2000), “Outsourcing Innovation: The New Engine of Growth,” Sloan Management Review, 41(4), 13–28.Google Scholar
  103. Raassens, Néomie, Stefan Wuyts, and Inge Geyskens (2012), “The Market Valuation of Outsourcing New Product Development,” Journal of Marketing Research, 49(5), 682–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reuer, Jeffrey J., and Tony W. Tong (2005), “Real Options in International Joint Ventures,” Journal of Management, 31(3), 403–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rindfleisch, Aric (2000), “Organizational Trust and Interfirm Cooperation: An Examination of Horizontal versus Vertical Alliances,” Marketing Letters, 11(1), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rindfleisch, Aric, and Christine Moorman (2001), “The Acquisition and Utilization of Information in New Product Alliances: A Strength-of-Ties Perspective,” Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robertson, Thomas S., and Hubert Gatignon (1998), “Technology Development Mode: A Transaction Cost Conceptualization,” Strategic Management Journal, 19(6), 515–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sampson, Rachelle C. (2007), “R&D Alliances and Firm Performance: The Impact of Technological Diversity and Alliance Organization on Innovation,” Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 364–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shan, Weijian (1990), “An Empirical Analysis of Organizational Strategies by Entrepreneurial High-Technology Firms,” Strategic Management Journal, 11(2), 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sivadas, Eugene, and R. Robert Dwyer (2000), “An Examination of Organizational Factors Influencing New Product Success in Internal and Alliance-Based Processes,” Journal of Marketing, 64(1), 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sorescu, Alina B., Rajesh K. Chandy, and Jaideep C. Prabhu (2003), “Sources and Financial Consequences of Radical Innovation: Insights from Pharmaceuticals,” Journal of Marketing, 67(4), 82–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Szulanski, G. (1996) “Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice within the Firm,” Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Teece, David J. (1986), “Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy,” Research Policy, 15(6), 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Teece, David J. (1988), “Technological Change and the Nature of the Firm,” in G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg, and L. Soete (Eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 256–281.Google Scholar
  115. Teece, David J. (1992), “Competition, Cooperation and Innovation: Organizational Arrangements for Regimes of Rapid Technological Progress,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 18(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Teece, David J. (1996), “Firm Organization, Industrial Structure, and Technological Innovation,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 31, 193–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teece, David J., Gary Pisano, and Amy Shuen (1997), “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management,” Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Terpstra, Vern, and Bernard L. Simonin (1993), “Strategic Alliances in the Triad,” Journal of International Marketing, 1(1), 4–25.Google Scholar
  119. Terpstra, Vern, and Chwo-Ming J. Yu (1990), “Piggybacking: A Quick Road to Internationalisation,” International Marketing Review, 7(4), 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Traitler, Helmut, and I. Sam Saguy (2009), “Creating Successful Innovation Partnerships,” Food Technology, 63, 23–35.Google Scholar
  121. Tushman, Michael L., and Charles A. O’Reilly (1996), “Ambidextrous Organizations,” California Management Review, 38(4), 8–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Un, C. Annique, Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, and Kazuhiro Asakawa (2010), “R&D Collaborations and Product Innovation,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(5), 673–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van den Bulte, Christophe, and Rudy K. Moenaert (1998), “The Effects of R&D Team Co-Location on Communication Patterns among R&D, Marketing, and Manufacturing,” Management Science, 44(11), S1–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vosgerau, Joachim, Erin Anderson, and William T. Ross, Jr. (2008), “Can Inaccurate Perceptions in Business-to-Business (B2B) Relationships Be Beneficial?,” Marketing Science, 27(2), 205–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Walker, Gordon, and David Weber (1984), “A Transaction Cost Approach to Make-or-Buy Decisions,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(3), 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wathne, Kenneth H., and Jan B. Heide (2000), “Opportunism in Interfirm Relationships: Forms, Outcomes, and Solutions,” Journal of Marketing, 64(4), 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Williamson, Oliver E. (1975), Markets and Hierarchies, New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  128. Williamson, Oliver E. (1985), The Economic Institutions of Capitalism, New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  129. Williamson, Oliver E. (1991), “Comparative Economic Organization: The Analysis of Discrete Structural Alternatives,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(2), 269–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wu, Brian (2014), Book Review for “Build, Borrow, or Buy: Solving the Growth Dilemma” (by Laurence Capron and Will Mitchell, Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press), Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 141–143.Google Scholar
  131. Wuyts, Stefan, Shantanu Dutta, and Stefan Stremersch (2004), “Portfolios of Interfirm Agreements in Technology-Intensive Markets: Consequences for Innovation and Profitability,” Journal of Marketing, 68(2), 88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhao, Hongxin, Yadong Luo, and Taewon Suh (2004), “Transaction Cost Determinants and Ownership-Based Entry Mode Choice: A Meta-Analytical Review,” Journal of International Business Studies, 35(6), 524–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ziedonis, Arvids A. (2007), “Real Options in Technology Licensing,” Management Science, 53(10), 1618–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Hubert Gatignon, David Gotteland and Christophe Haon 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubert Gatignon
    • 1
  • David Gotteland
    • 2
  • Christophe Haon
    • 2
  1. 1.INSEADSorbonne UniversitésFrance
  2. 2.Grenoble Ecole de ManagementFrance

Personalised recommendations