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Comparison with Islamic Law

  • Yoshinobu Nagamine

Abstract

In contrast to Pashtunwali, reference to Islamic law is more explicit. The 2010 Layeha purports to have been compiled “in the light of Mohammedan Sharia and through the assistance and advice given by the prominent and [among others] erudite theologians (ulema)”1 and refers at least 13 times to the Sharia law (Islamic law). The introduction cites a passage from the Qur’an2 and insinuates that the Layeha draws its authority from Islam. This chapter attempts to analyze critically the Layeha’s claim to compatibility with Islam. Next to comparison, it is also interested in the Taliban’s instrumentalization of religion in their pursuit of political goals.

Keywords

Legal Scholar Muslim Community Suicide Bombing Armed Attack Muslim Scholar 
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Notes

  1. 3.
    For example, Sobhi Mahmassani, “The Principles of International Law in the Light of Islamic Doctrine,” Recueil des Cours, 117 (1966 ); C. G. Weeramantry, Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988; Abdullahi A. An-Na’im, Toward an Islamic Reformation, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990; Sheikh Wahbeh al-Zuhili, “Islam and International Law,” International Review of the Red Cross, 87 (858), (June 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. 10.
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  4. 15.
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  8. 26.
    John Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, p.31. See also Bonner, Jihad in Islamic History, p.14; Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press_ 1999. n.97.Google Scholar
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    Cook (ibid., pp.165–166) claims that there is scarce evidence for the primacy of spiritual Jihad in both contemporary and classical Muslim literature. See also Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, p.72; Ahmad S. Moussalli, Moderate and Radical Islamic Fundamentalism, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999; G. Michael Knapp, “The Concept and PracticeofJihad in Islam,” Parameters, 33 (1), (Spring 2003), pp.151–152.Google Scholar
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    A. A. al-Maududi, Jihad in Islam, Beirut: The Holy Koran Publishing House, 2006.Google Scholar
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    Robert Crews, “The Taliban and Nationalist Militancy in Afghanistan,” Contextualizing Jihadi Thought, ed. Jeevan Deol and Zaheer Kazmi, London: Hurst & Company, 2012, pp.352–356.Google Scholar
  14. 65.
    Ahmed Mohsen Al-Dawoody, War in Islamic Law: Justifications and Regulations, Doctoral thesis, University of Birmingham, August 2009, p.198. Recent Islamic scholars such as Mawdudi, Hamidullah, or al-Zuhayli left a profound impact on the critical review of inedieval interpretation of the conduct of war in modern times. Hamidullah and al-Zuhayli, in particular, further developed principles of international relations and the means and methods at times of war (siyar) in modern Islamic discussion. See H. Sohail Hashmi, “Saving and Taking Life in War: Three Modern Muslim Views,” Muslim World, 89 (2), (1999).Google Scholar
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    Anke Iman Bouzenita, “The Siyar—An Islamic Law of Nations?,” Asian journal of Social Science, 25 (2007), p.24.Google Scholar
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    Mazil Izzi Dien, Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations to Contemporary Practice, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004, p.84. Al-Zuhayli maintained that necessity would occur when the state of danger or extreme hardship affects the life, body, honor, mind, or property of the human being. Al-Zuhayli, Nazariyat al-darura al-shar ‘iyya, Beirut, 1995.Google Scholar
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    Shaheen Sardar Ali and Javaid Rehman, “The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International Law,” Journal of Conflict ér Security Law, 10 (3), (2005), p.339. Munir, “The Layha for the Mujahideen: An Analysis of the Code of Conduct for the Taliban Fighters under Islamic Law,” p.89. The judge of Bagdad, Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari (Abu Yusuf, eighth century), said, “Kill prisoners who might prove dangerous to the Muslims, but this is only applicable to those on the chin of whom a razor has passed.” In An-Na’im, Toward an Islamic Reformation, pp.314–315.Google Scholar

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© Yoshinobu Nagamine 2015

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  • Yoshinobu Nagamine

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