Advertisement

Inequality of Opportunity in the Labor Market for Higher Education Graduates in Egypt and Jordan

  • Caroline Krafft
  • Ragui Assaad
Chapter
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)

Abstract

In a well-functioning labor market, outcomes differ across individuals because of the quality of their human capital and level of skill, as well as the work effort they expend. Likewise, when the education system is functioning well, the human capital and skills individuals accumulate should reflect differences in their effort in school. Therefore, in a country with both a well-functioning education system and a well-functioning labor market, labor market outcomes will reflect individual effort, some of which is embodied in human capital and skills. However, the labor market could fail to properly allocate or reward human capital and skills, but instead allocate human capital and rewards on the basis of individuals’ circumstances, such as their social class, their gender or where they live. While unequal outcomes related to effort are morally justifiable, unequal allocations on the basis of circumstances outside of individuals’ control are morally unjustifiable, and can be termed inequality of opportunity (Roemer 1998). Inequality of opportunity also offends people’s sense of fairness, leading to anger and frustration among those who are aggrieved, thus threatening social cohesion, reducing trust in public institutions and undermining political stability.

Keywords

Labor Market Human Capital General Entropy Labor Market Outcome Wage Inequality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abras, Ana, Alejandro Hoyos, Ambar Narayan, and Sailesh Tiwari. 2013. “Inequality of Opportunities in the Labor Market: Evidence from Life in Transition Surveys in Europe and Central Asia.” IZA Journal of Labor & Development 2(7): 1–22.Google Scholar
  2. Assaad, Ragui. 1997. “Kinship Ties, Social Networks, and Segmented Labor Markets: Evidence from the Construction Sector in Egypt.” Journal of Development Economics 52: 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. —. 2013. “Equality for All? Egypt’s Free Public Higher Education Policy Breeds Inequality of Opportunity.” In Is There Equality of Opportunity under Free Higher Education in Egypt? (Arabic), edited by Asmaa Elbadawy. New York, NY: Population Council.Google Scholar
  4. —. 2014a. “The Structure and Evolution of Employment in Jordan.” In The Jordanian Labour Market in the New Millennium, edited by Ragui Assaad, 1–38. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. —. 2014b. “Making Sense of Arab Labor Markets: The Enduring Legacy of Dualism.” IZA Journal of Labor & Development 3 (1): 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Assaad, Ragui, Eslam Badawy, and Caroline Krafft. 2014. “Differences in Pedagogy, Accountability, and Perceptions of Quality by Type of Higher Education in Egypt and Jordan.” Economic Research Forum Working Paper Series No. 828. Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  7. Assaad, Ragui, and Fatma El-Hamidi. 2009. “Women in the Egyptian Labor Market: An Analysis of Developments, 1988–2006.” In The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited, edited by Ragui Assaad, 219–258. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Assaad, Ragui, and Caroline Krafft. 2014. “Youth Transitions in Egypt: School, Work, and Family Formation in an Era of Changing Opportunities.” Silatech Working Paper No. 14–1. Doha, Qatar: Silatech.Google Scholar
  9. —. 2015a. “The Evolution of Labor Supply and Unemployment in The Egyptian Economy: 1988–2012.” In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution, edited by Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft, 1–26. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. —. 2015b. “The Structure and Evolution of Employment in Egypt: 1998–2012.” In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution, edited by Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft, 27–51. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Assaad, Ragui, Caroline Krafft, and Djavad Salehi-Isfahani. 2014. “Does the Type of Higher Education Affect Labor Market Outcomes? A Comparison of Egypt and Jordan.” Economic Research Forum Working Paper Series No. 826. Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  12. Assaad, Ragui, Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, and Rana Hendy. 2014. “Inequality of Opportunity in Educational Attainment in Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from Household Surveys.” Economic Research Forum Working Paper Series No. 834. Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  13. Barsoum, Ghada. 2004. The Employment Crisis of Female Graduates in Egypt: An Ethnographic Account. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bayat, Asef. 2013. “The Arab Spring and Its Surprises.” Development and Change 44 (3): 587–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bibi, Sami, and Mustapha K. Nabli. 2009. “Income Inequality in the Arab Region: Data and Measurement, Patterns and Trends.” Middle East Development Journal 1 (2): 275–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Binzel, Christine. 2011. “Decline in Social Mobility: Unfulfilled Aspirations among Egypt’s Educated Youth.” IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 6139. Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
  17. Bourguignon, Francois, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, and Marta Menendez. 2007. “Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil.” Review of Income and Wealth 53 (4): 585–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Checchi, Daniele, and Vito Peragine. 2010. “Inequality of Opportunity in Italy.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 8(4): 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diwan, Ishac. 2013. “Understanding Revolution in the Middle East: The Central Role of the Middle Class.” Middle East Development Journal 5 (1): 1–30.Google Scholar
  20. Duclos, Jean-Yves, and Abdelkrim Araar. 2006. Poverty and Equity: Measurement, Policy and Estimation with DAD. New York, NY: Springer International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  21. El-Kogali, Safaa, and Caroline Krafft. 2015. Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation: Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elbadawy Asmaa. 2015. “Education in Egypt: Improvements in Attainment, Problems with Quality and Inequality.” In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution, edited by Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft, 127–146. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ferreira, Francisco H. G., andjérémie Gignoux. 2008. “The Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity: Theory and an Application to Latin America.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4659. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. —. 2011. “The Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity: Theory and an Application to Latin America.” Review of Income and Wealth 57 (4): 622–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hassine, Nadia Belhaj. 2011. “Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt.” The World Bank Economic Review 26 (2): 265–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kherfl, Sanier. 2015. “Determinants of Unemployment Duration in Egypt.” In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution, edited by Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krallt, 90–107. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krallt, Caroline. 2012. “Challenges Facing the Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, and Inequality.” SYPE Policy Brief No. 2. New York, NY: Population Council.Google Scholar
  28. Krallt, Caroline, and Salaa El-Kogali. 2014. “Inequalities in Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Alrica.” Economic Research Forum Working Paper Series No. 856. Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  29. Krallt, Caroline, Asmaa Elbadawy and Ragui Assaad. 2013. “Access within the Higher Education System: Evidence lor More Inequality of Opportunity.” In Is There Equality of Opportunity under Tree Higher Education in Egypt? (Arabic), edited by Asmaa Elbadawy. New York, NY: Population Council.Google Scholar
  30. Malik, Adeel, and Bassem Awadallah. 2013. “The Economics of the Arab Spring.” World Development 45: 296–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mryyan, Nader. 2014. “Demographics, Labor Force Participation, and Unemployment in Jordan.” In The Jordanian Labour Market in the New Millennium, edited by Ragui Assaad, 39–63. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nugent, Jeffrey B., and Mohamed Saleh. 2009. “Intergenerational Transmission Of, and Returns to Human Capital and Changes Therein over Time: Evidence from Egypt.” Economic Research Forum Working Paper Series No. 468. Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
  33. OAMDI. 2014a. “Higher Education Graduates Survey (HEGS), Version 1.0 Licensed Data Files; Egypt HEGS 2012. Cairo, Egypt: Economic Research Forum.” http://www.erl.org.eg/cms.php?id=erldataportal.
  34. —. 2014b. “Higher Education Graduates Survey (HEGS), Version 1.0 Licensed Data Files; Jordan HEGS 2012. Cairo, Egypt: Economic Research Forum.” http://www.erl.org.eg/cms.php?id=erldataportal.
  35. Pistolesi, Nicolas. 2009. “Inequality of Opportunity in the Land of Opportunities, 1968–2001.” Journal of Economic Inequality 7 (4): 411–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richards, Alan, John Waterbury Melani Cammett, and Ishac Diwan. 2014. A Political Economy of the Middle East. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  37. Roemer, John E. 1998. Equality of Opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Said, Mona. 2014. “Wage Formation and Earnings Inequality in the Jordanian Labor Market.” In The Jordanian Labour Market in the New Millenium, edited by Said, Mona, 144–171. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. —. 2015. “Wages and Inequality in the Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Financial Crisis and Revolution.” In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution, edited by Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krallt, 52–69. Oxford, UK: Oxford University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Salehi-Islahani, Djavad, Nadia Belhaj Hassine, and Ragui Assaad. 2014. “Equality of Opportunity in Educational Achievement in the Middle East and North Africa.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 12 (4): 489–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. World Bank. 2012. “Arab Republic of Egypt: Inequality of Opportunity in the Labor Market.” Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  42. —. 2013. “Jobs lor Shared Prosperity: Time lor Action in the Middle East and North Alrica.” Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Krafft
  • Ragui Assaad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations