Structural Transformation

  • Doerte Doemeland
  • Marc Schiffbauer
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an economically diverse region. It encompasses oil-rich, high-income Gulf countries and resource-scarce, lower-middle-income countries, such as Djibouti, Morocco, West Bank and Gaza and Yemen (Figure 1.1).1 The countries are also very different in their demographic structure. There are relatively few young people as a share of the population in Qatar and United Arab Emirates, while in Iraq, Yemen and West Bank and Gaza more than 40 percent of the population is younger than 15 years of age (Figure 1.2). Moreover, while the Gulf states are net migrant recipients, all other MENA countries, including natural resource-rich countries such as Algeria, Iraq and Iran, export migrants.


Human Capital Labor Productivity Productivity Growth Saudi Arabia Real Exchange Rate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Caselli, F. 2005. “Accounting for cross-country income differences”. In P. Aghion and S. Durlauf (eds.), Handbook of Economic Growth, Vol. 1A. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  2. Chanda, Areedam and Carl-Johann Dalgaard. 2008. “Dual Economies and International Total Factor Productivity Differences: Channelling the Impact from Institutions, Trade, and Geography”, Economica, 75 (300), 629–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ciccone, Antonio and Elias Papaioannou. 2008. “Entry regulation and intersectoral reallocation”, Economics Working Papers, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.Google Scholar
  4. Dahi, Omar and Firat Demir. 2008. “The Middle East and North Africa”; in: A.K. Dutt and J. Ros (eds.) International Handbook of Development Economics, vol. 2, pp. 522–535, London.Google Scholar
  5. Diop, Ndiame and Daniela Marotto. 2013 “Natural Resource Abundance, Growth and Diversification in MENA – The Effects of Natural Resources and the Role of Policies”, World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Eichengreen, Barry and Poonam Gupta. 2014. “Tapering Talk: The Impact of Expectations of Reduced Federal Reserve Security Purchases on Emerging Markets”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Graham, B. and J. Temple. 2006. “Rich nations, poor nations: how much can multiple equilibria explain?”, Journal of Economic Growth, 11, 5–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hall, R. and C. I. Jones. 1999. “Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker?”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 83–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hsieh, Chang-Tai, and Peter J. Klenow. 2014. “The life cycle of plants in India and Mexico.” Working Paper 18133, NBER, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Klenow, P. J. and A. Rodriguez-Clare. 1997. “The neoclassical revival in growth economics: has it gone too far?”, in B. Bernanke and J. J. Rotemberg (eds.), NBER Macroeconomics Annual. Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 73–103.Google Scholar
  11. Landon-Lane, J. and P. Robertson. 2005. “Barriers to accumulation and productivity differences in a two sector growth model”. Mimeo, Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  12. Lewis, W. A. 1954. “Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour”, The Manchester School, 22 (2), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Matsuyama, Kiminori. 2002. “The Rise of Mass Consumption Societies”, The Journal of Political Economy, 110 (5), 1035–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McMillan, M. and D. Rodrik. 2012. “Globalization, Structural Change and Productivity Growth”. Working Paper 17143, NBER, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  15. McMillan, Margaret, Dani Rodrik and Inigo Verduzco-Gallo. 2014. “Globalization, Structural Change and Productivity Growth, with an Update on Africa,” World Development No. 63 (Special Issue on Economic Transformation in Africa), pp. 11–32.Google Scholar
  16. Nabli, Mustafa and M.A. Veganzones-Varoudakis. 2002. “Exchange Rate Regime and Competiveness of Manufactured Exports. The Case of MENA Countries”, MENA Working Paper 27, World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. Ranis, G. and Fei J. C. H. 1961. “A theory of economic development”, The American Economic Review, 54(4), 533–565.Google Scholar
  18. Restuccia, Diego (2004). “Barriers to capital accumulation and aggregate total factor productivity”, International Economic Review, 45, 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rodrik, Dani. 2013. “Unconditional Convergence in Manufacturing”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128 (1), 165–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Timmer, Marcel P. and Gaaitzen J. de Vries. 2009. “Structural change and growth accelerations in Asia and Latin America: a new sectoral data set”, Cliometrica, 3 (2), 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vollrath, D. 2006. “Factor market imperfections and aggregate productivity in dual economies”, Mimeo, University of Houston.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doerte Doemeland
  • Marc Schiffbauer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations