Structural Transformation

  • Doerte Doemeland
  • Marc Schiffbauer
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an economically diverse region. It encompasses oil-rich, high-income Gulf countries and resource-scarce, lower-middle-income countries, such as Djibouti, Morocco, West Bank and Gaza and Yemen (Figure 1.1).1 The countries are also very different in their demographic structure. There are relatively few young people as a share of the population in Qatar and United Arab Emirates, while in Iraq, Yemen and West Bank and Gaza more than 40 percent of the population is younger than 15 years of age (Figure 1.2). Moreover, while the Gulf states are net migrant recipients, all other MENA countries, including natural resource-rich countries such as Algeria, Iraq and Iran, export migrants.


Human Capital Labor Productivity Productivity Growth Saudi Arabia Real Exchange Rate 
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© International Economic Association 2016

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  • Doerte Doemeland
  • Marc Schiffbauer

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