Religion, Nationalism, and the Rohingya’s Search for Citizenship in Myanmar
- 557 Downloads
Since Myanmar has been welcomed into the international fold in late 2011, following some initial steps toward democratic reform, it has been beset by a wave of religious violence in recent times between Buddhists and Muslims, with the Rohingya community generally on the receiving end.1 The recent wave of violence erupted among Buddhists and Muslim in Meikhtila city during March 2013, following a wave of violence between Rohingya Muslims and the Arakan Buddhists in 2012. These incidences of violence call into question the commitment of the Myanmar government in guaranteeing democratic and religious freedoms and truly embracing the spirit of multicultur-alism. The roots of this Buddhist-Muslim violence is multifaceted, including political, security, and historical factors. However, one of the key bones of contention regarding the Rohingya is the notion of citizenship. These issues continue to facilitate outbreaks of violence that threatens the delicate religious balance in the country, with the potential to escalate and spill over across the Asia region.
KeywordsIllegal Immigrant Refugee Camp Muslim Community Thai Government Boat People
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Amnesty International, (2004), “The Rohingya Minority: Fundamental Rights Denied,” available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/2004/en/9e8bb8db-d5d5-11dd-bb24-1fb85fe8fa05/asa160052004en.pdf.
- Berlie, Jean, (2008), The Burmanization of Myanmar’s Muslim, Thailand: White Lotus.Google Scholar
- Boonreak, Kunnawut. (2015), “New-arrival Rohingya: Integrating into cross-border trade networks in the Thai-Burma Borderland,” in Samak Kosem (ed.), Border Twists, Burma Trajectories. Chiang Mai: Center for ASEAN Studies, Chaing Mai University.Google Scholar
- Chan, Aye, (2005), The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan State of Burma, SOAS (Myanmar).” SOAS Bullentin of Burma Research, 3(2), pp. 396–420.Google Scholar
- Ekeh, Chizom and Smith, Martin, (2007), “Minorities in Burma,” Minority Rights Group International Briefing Paper.Google Scholar
- European Commission Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, “The Rohingya Crisis,” Factsheet, available at http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/aid/countries/factsheets/rohingya_en.pdf.
- Kosem, Samak, (2012), “Missionizing Border: Religious Space, Movement, and the Re-identification of Muslim Migrants in the Thai-Burma Borderlands,” Social Sciences Journal. Chiang Mai University, (24).Google Scholar
- Mohiyuddin, Mohammed and Mohammed Sulaiman, (2008), “Islamic Education in Myanmar: A Case Study” in Dictatorship, Disorder and Decline in Myanmar, ends by Monique Skidmore and Trevor Wilson, The Australian National University.Google Scholar
- Prachathai, (2013), “Fieldwork Journal: Rohingya Ways, Chapter 1 Entering Thailand,” available at http://prachatai.com/journal/2013/02/45266. (in Thai).
- Pugh, Cresa L. (2013), “Is Citizenship the Answer? Constructions of Belonging and Exclusion for the Stateless Rohingya of Burma,” University of Oxford, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society Working Paper No. 107, available at https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/files/Publications/working_papers/WP_2013/WP13107_Pugh.pdf
- TBBC, (2010), 3 Sides to Every Stories, Thailand Burma Border Consortium.Google Scholar
- Veen, Rianne ten, (2005), “Myanmar’s Muslims: The Oppressed of the Oppressed,” Islamic Human Rights Commission (IHRC), Wembley, UK, October, available at http://www.ihrc.org.uk.
- Yegar, Moshe, (1972), The Muslims of Burma. A Study of a Minority Group, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
- Yusuf, Imtiyaz, (2009), “Ethnoreligious and Political Dimensions of the Southern Thailand Conflict” in Amit Pandya and Ellen Laipson (eds.), Islam and Politics: Renewal and Resistance in the Muslim World, Washington DC: Stimson, 2009, pp. 43–55.Google Scholar