Executive Summary

  • Robert Mason
Part of the The Modern Muslim World book series (MMUS)


Before 9/11 government policy did not generally target minority Muslim communities beyond broad based policies aimed at fostering multiculturalism, integration, and social cohesion. However, in the last decade or so that has all changed. Muslims are now front and center of a global debate in so-called secular states about growing radical-ization, the legitimacy of Muslim actors, and generally Islamophobic fears about Islamization as a challenge to traditional national identities. At no time has this been stressed more greatly than in 2015 when the conflict in Syria and instability in other parts of the Middle East and Africa has triggered new cases of terrorism in Europe conducted by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) or its affiliates and a tsunami of asylum-seekers attempting to enter Europe. More than 350,000 migrants were at the EU border between January and August 2015, more than the total figure for 2014.1 Germany alone, expects to receive 800,000 refugees and asylum-seekers in 2015, a four-fold increase on 2014.2 Although there are complexities surrounding European immigration policy, what is certain is that some will inevitably choose to remain in Europe and this could have a major effect on the composition, politics, and policies of European societies.


Executive Summary Muslim Community Islamic Banking Muslim Population Target Radicalisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arab American Institute, 2014, “American Attitudes Toward Arabs and Muslims: 2014,” available at http://www.aaiusa.org/reports/american-attitudes-toward-arabs-and-muslims-2014
  2. Aluwaisheg, Abdel Aziz, (2013), “Islamophobia in Russia,” 1 December, available at http://www.arabnews.com/news/485696.
  3. Atta, Sefi, (2014), “Too Many of Nigeria’s Women Are targets—Not Just the Kidnapped Girls,” Time, May 19, available at http://time.com/103531/nigeria-boko-haram-sharia-law/.
  4. BBC News, (2014), “Chechnya Profile,” December 9, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18188085
  5. BBC News, (2015), “Most British Muslims “Oppose Muhammed Cartoons Reprisals,” February 25, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-31293196
  6. BBC News, (2015), “New Laws to Target Radicalisation,” May 13, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32714802
  7. BBC News, (2015), “Why is EU Struggling with Migrants and Asylum?” September 1, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24583286
  8. Caldwell, Christopher, (2015), “Immigration and Islam: Europe’s Crisis of Faith,” January 16, available at http://www.wsj.com/articles/europe-immigration-and-islam-europes-crisis-of-faith-1421450060
  9. Cameron, David, (2014), “British Values,” Article for Mail on Sunday, June 15, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/news/british-values-article-by-david-cameron.
  10. Casciani, Dominic, (2014), “Analysis: The Prevent Strategy and its Problems,” August 26, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-28939555
  11. Euro-Islam.info, “Islam in Austria,” available at http://www.euro-islam.info/country-profiles/austria/
  12. European Commission, (2003), Dialogue Between People and Cultures in the Euro-Mediterranean Area, October, available at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/policy_advisers/archives/experts_groups/docs/rapport_complet_en.pdf
  13. Farge, Emma, and Alex Whiting, (2015), “Nigeria’s Boko Haram Abducted 2,000 Women and Girls: Report,” Reuters, April 14, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/04/14/us-nigeria-girls-warcrimes-idUSKBN0N42DD20150414
  14. Gallup, “Islamophobia: Understanding Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the West,” available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/157082/islamophobia-understanding-anti-muslim-sentiment-west.aspx
  15. Hatcher, Jessica, and KevinSieff, (2015), “Al-Shabab Attacks Kenyan University, Killing at Least 147,” The Washington Post, 2 April, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/70-killed-hundreds-rescued-after-kenya-university-attack-by-al-shabab-militants/2015/04/02/0c554516-d951-11e4-ba28-f2a685dc7f89_story.html
  16. Islamophobia Watch, (2014), “FPÖ Wants to Target Muslim Kindergartens that Promote ‘Violent Ideology,’” November 26, available at http://www.islamophobiawatch.co.uk/fpo-wants-to-target-muslim-kindergartens-that-promote-violent-ideology/#more-38973
  17. Mason, Robert, and Sherry Gadelrab, (2011), “Trust, Representation and Communication are Key to Increasing Engagement Between the British Muslim Community and Government,” LSE Politics and Policy Blog, August 25, available at http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/38100/1/blogs.lse.ac.uk-Trust_representation_and_communication_are_key_to_increas-ing_engagement_between_the_British_Muslim_co.pdf
  18. PBS Frontline, “Portraits of Ordinary Muslims: Nigeria,” available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/portraits/nigeria.html
  19. Pew Global, (2014). “Chapter 4—View of Roma, Muslims, Jews,” May 12, available at http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/05/12/chapter-4-views-of-roma-muslims-jews/
  20. Pew Research Center, (2015), “French Have More Positive View of Both Jews, Muslims,” January 14, available at http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/14/french-have-positive-views-of-both-jews-muslims/
  21. Pullitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, (2012), “Between Burma and Bangladesh: Rohingya, A Stateless People,” April 18, available at http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/burma-bangladesh-rohingya-stateless-citizenship-act-refugees
  22. Radio Poland, (2014), “Anti-Islamic Group Patrols Clubs to ‘Protect’ Polish Women,” January 15, available at http://www.thenews.pl/1/9/Artykul/158678, AntiIslamic-group-patrols-clubs-to-protect-Polish-women
  23. Riley-Smith, Ben, (2015), “David Cameron Defends Charlie Hebdo’s Right to Publish New Prophet Mohammed Cartoon,” The Telegraph, January 13, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/david-cameron/11343574/David-Cameron-defends-Charlie-Hebdos-right-to-publish-new-Prophet-Mohammed-cartoon.html
  24. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, (2012), “Suicide Bomber Kills Muslim Leader Sheikh Said Afandi in Russian Republic Dagestan,” September 7, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sponsored/rbth/society/9529143/sheikh-said-afandi-suicide-bombing.html
  25. Taher, Abul, (2015), “Attacks on Muslims Will Become Specific Hate Crime, Say Tories in Bid to Establish Full Extent of Islamophobia in Britain,” Mail Online, April 4, available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3026015/Attacks-Muslims-specific-hate-crime-say-Tories-bid-establish-extent-Islamophobia-Britain.html
  26. The Economist, (2015), “Islam in Europe,” January 7, available at http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2015/01/daily-chart-2
  27. The Economist (2015), “Europe’s Migrant Acceptance Rates,” September 1, available at http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2015/09/daily-chart
  28. The Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, “sūrat l-nisāa” (The Women).Google Scholar
  29. The National Archives, (2006), “Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006,” available at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/1/schedule UK Department for Communities and Local Government, (2014), “Kerslake Report: Birmingham Council Must Radically Improve,” December 9, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/news/kerslake-report-birmingham-council-must-radically-improve.
  30. UK Department for Communities and Local Government, (2015) “Final Draft Letter to Mosques,” available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/396312/160115_Final_Draft_Letter_to_Mosques_PDF.pdf
  31. Wheeler, Nicholas, “Chechnya: Anti-Terrorist Operation or Human Rights Disaster,” Kennan Institute at the Wilson Center, available at http://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/chechnya-anti-terrorist-operation-or-human-rights-disaster
  32. Wilby, Peter, (2015), “After the Trojan Horse Schools ‘People are Looking to the Future, Not the Past,’” The Guardian, 24 March, available at http://www.theguardian.com/education/2015/mar/24/trojan-horse-schools-birmingham-mike-tomlinson
  33. Uutiset, Yle, (2014), “CNN: Finland Tops List of Countries with Muslim Fighters in Syria,” September 2, available at http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/cnn_fin-land_tops_list_of_countries_with_muslim_fighters_in_syria/7446816

Copyright information

© Robert Mason 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Mason

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations