Living the ‘Chinese Dream’ in the ‘Russkiy Mir’: Central Asia between Sino-Russian Strategic Trilemmas?
China’s President Xi Jinping made his first foreign trip to Russia during 22–23 March 2013. In Moscow the two presidents signed a natural gas deal and further consolidated their strategic partnership, pledging to ‘support each other’s right to choose its own development and social and political systems and firmly support each other on issues involving the other side’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, security, and other core interests’ (Xinhua News Agency, 2013). President Xi Jinping demonstrated how far the partnership had developed by pledging to: ‘resolutely support each other in efforts to protect national sovereignty, security and development interests’ and ‘closely coordinate in international affairs’ while President Vladimir Putin responded accordingly — suggesting the formation of a new anti-American axis (Gelb & Simes, 2013; Lo, 2012). Through 2014 this partnership was strengthened. Russia’s oil exports to China are set to rise, following a May 2014 US$400 billion pact between the two countries that secures 38 billion cubic metres (bcm) a year of exports from eastern Siberia to Heilongjiang province in China for 30 years, starting in 2019 (Nye, 2015). At the November 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation CEO Summit (APEC) in Beijing, Russia signed a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ to supply CNPC with 30bcm/y from western Siberia to Xinjiang province.
KeywordsForeign Policy Silk Road Soft Power Strategic Partnership Xinhua News Agency
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baker, Peter (2014) ‘Pressure rising as Obama works to rein in Russia’, The New York Times, 24 March. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/03/world/europe/ pressure-rising-as-obama-works-to-rein-in-russia.html?smid=fb-share&_r=4.
- Barskiy, Kirill (2014) ‘Russia in Asia: has always been and will always be’, The Bangkok Post, 6 November 2014, posted on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, Moscow, in English, 11 November.Google Scholar
- Blinkov, Vladimir (2014) ‘Change of Economic Development Model of China and its influence on Chinese Foreign Economic Policy’, Russian Institute of Strategic Studies, 30 June. http://www.riss.ru/analitika/3357-izmenenie-ekonomicheskoj-modeli-razvitiya-kitaya-i-ego-vliyanie-na-kitajskuyu-vnesh-neekonomicheskuyu-politiku#.VH76wdKUfLQ.
- Burdin, Viktor and Mikhail Kozachkov (2014) ‘Agreement is more important than money, or why would the EAEU “mainland” need the Kyrgyz “shore”’, Vremya website, Almaty, in Russian, 15 October.Google Scholar
- Dani, Rodrik (2011) The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Dmitriyev, Aleksandr (2014) ‘It is easier to agree about war than peace’, Trud, Moscow, in Russian, 24 December.Google Scholar
- Ford, Peter (2012) ‘China’s Communist Party Congress opens with a warning: As China’s once-in-a-decade leadership transition got under way, outgoing President Hu Jintao warned bluntly that the Communist Party faces “collapse” if it fails to clean up corruption’, The Christian Science Monitor, 8 November.Google Scholar
- Gelb, Leslie H. and Dimitri K. Simes (2013) ‘A new anti-American axis?’, The New York Times, 7 July, p. 5.Google Scholar
- Gosset, David (2015) ‘And now for the Eurasian dream’, China Daily European Edition, 9 January, p. 9.Google Scholar
- Gushchin, Aleksandr (2014) ‘A difficult partner’, Politcom.ru website, Moscow, in Russian, 11 December.Google Scholar
- Herd, Graeme P. (2013) ‘The “battle of ideas, concepts and geopolitical projects” in Central Asia: Implications for Russo-Chinese Relations?’, in Roger E. Kanet and Remi B. Piet (eds), Russia’s Foreign and Security Policy: Shifting Regional and Global Priorities. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Republic of Letters Publishing, pp. 183–204.Google Scholar
- Huang, Cary (2012) ‘Corruption must be curbed, Xi says: Leader warns that the party risks losing power as growth slows unless graft is stamped out’, South China Morning Post, 20 November, p. 6.Google Scholar
- Kaneko, Natsuki (2013) ‘Central Asia grows as fossil fuel production hub’, The Nikkei Weekly (Japan), 25 March.Google Scholar
- Karaganov, Sergey (2014) ‘The Watershed Year: Interim results’, Russia in Global Affairs, 18 December. http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/The-Watershed-Year-Interim-Results-17210.
- Khimshiashvili, Polina (2014) ‘Kazakhstan as a War Victim’, RBC Daily, No. 162, p. 2.Google Scholar
- Kotkin, Stephen (2013) ‘Mr. Xi goes to Moscow’, The International Herald Tribune, 28 March, p. 6.Google Scholar
- Kuhn, Robert Lawrence (2013) ‘Xi Jinping’s Chinese Dream’, The New York Times, 5 June.Google Scholar
- Lo, Bobo (2012) ‘A partnership of convenience’, The International Herald Tribune, 8 June, p. 6.Google Scholar
- Lukyanov, Fydor (2014) ‘Apologia of unspoken words’, Rossiyskaya Gazeta website, Moscow, in Russian, 24 December.Google Scholar
- Malashenko, Alexei (2015) ‘The Harsher the Position of Moscow, the Stronger it Unites its Opponents’, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, No. 726, 15 January, p. 3.Google Scholar
- Maslov, Aleksey (2012) ‘China tries to export capital to Central Asia in guise of integration — pundit’, Interfax-Kazakhstan News Agency, Almaty, in Russian, 19 April.Google Scholar
- Matlack, Carole (2014) ‘Putin is losing out to China in Central Asia’s Latest “Great Game”’, Bloomberg Businessweek, 6 November. http://www.business-week.com/articles/2014–11–06/putin-loses-his-grip-on-central-asia-as-china-moves-in.
- Min, Ye, (2014) ‘China’s Silk Road Strategy, Xi Jinping’s real answer to the Trans-Pacific Partnership’, Foreign Policy, 10 November, p. 4. http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/11/10/chinas-silk-road-strategy/.
- Nazarbayev, Nursultan. (2014) ‘The Address of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan: Nyrly Zhol — The Path to the Future’, Official Site of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 11 November. http://www.akorda.kz/en/page/page_218343_.
- Nye, Joseph (2015) ‘A new Sino-Russian Alliance?’, Project Syndicate, 12 January. http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/russia-china-alliance-by-joseph-s — nye-2015–01.
- Orthodox-Slavic Values, (2013) ‘Orthodox-Slavic Values: The Foundation of Ukraine’s Civilisational Choice conference’, President of the Russian Federation website, 27 July. http://eng.kremlin.ru/transcripts/5783.
- Pannier, Bruce (2014) ‘China’s limits in Central Asia’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 30 November. http://www.rferl.org/content/china-central-asia-/26717574.html.
- Polovinko, Vyacheslav (2014) ‘Neighbour’s television blaring out too loudly — How Kazakhstan was held hostage to Russian policy and the Ukrainian war. Is a repetition of the Ukrainian scenario possible in Kazakhstan?’, Novaya Gazeta website, Moscow, in Russian, 31 October.Google Scholar
- Popescu, Nicu (2014) ‘Eurasian Union: The real, the imaginary and the likely’, Chaillot Papier — No. 132, 9 September. http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/ media/CP_132.pdf.
- Pravda.ru, (2014) ‘If there is no Putin, there is no Russia’, Pravda.ru, 23 October. http://english.pravda.ru/society/stories/23–10–2014/128877-putin_russia-0/.
- Pu, Zhendong (2015) ‘Diplomatic touch’, China Daily European Edition, 9 January.Google Scholar
- Putin, Vladimir (2014) ‘Text of Interview to China’s leading media companies 6 November 2014’, President of the Russian Federation website, Moscow, in English, 6 November.Google Scholar
- Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (2014) ‘Russia has the highest level of wealth inequality’, RFE/RL, 10 October. http://www.rferl.org/content/russia-billion-aire-wealth-inequality/25132471.html.
- Ramachandaran, Shastri (2014) ‘China’s Silk Road map: India has much to gain from it as such an initiative would foster trade and fight terrorism’, DNA, 24 December.Google Scholar
- Rickleton, Chris (2014) ‘Central Asia: Can China’s Silk Road vision coexist with a Eurasian Union?’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2 December. http://www.rferl.org/content/china-central-asia-/26717574.html.
- Satke, Ryskeldi (2014) ‘Kazakhstan opposition fears Ukraine’s “Russian Spring”’, The Diplomat, 12 April. http://thediplomat.com/2014/04/kazakhstan-opposition-fears-ukraines-russian-spring/.
- Shevtsova, Liliya (2015) ‘Review of the Year 2014 — the End of the Illusion?’, Yezhednevnyy Zhurnal website, Moscow, in Russian, 1 January.Google Scholar
- Snyder, Timothy (2014) ‘Fascism, Russia, and Ukraine’, New York Review of Books, 20 March. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/mar/20/fascism-russia-and-ukraine/?pagination=false.
- Solovyev (2014) ‘Sunday Night with Vladimir Solovyev’, Rossiya 1 TV, Moscow, in Russian, 19.30 gmt, 2 March. www.russia.tv/video/show/brand_id/21385/ episode_id/971115.
- Strokan, Sergei (2014) ‘Kazakhstan sees the Eurasian Union as a purely economic alliance and nothing more’, Kommersant, No 155/P, 1 September, p. 6.Google Scholar
- Swanström, Niklas (2012) ‘Central Asian and Russian Relations: Breaking out of the Russian Orbit?’, Brown Journal of World Affairs, XIX(1), Fall/Winter, pp. 101–113.Google Scholar
- Terekhova, Alina (2014) ‘Quarrel with Belarus might erupt’, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, No. 215, 6 October, p. 4.Google Scholar
- The Economist (2014) ‘The end of the line: For more than a decade oil income and consumer spending have delivered growth to Vladimir Putin’s Russia. Not any more’, The Economist, Moscow, 22 November. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21633816-more-decade-oil-income-and-consumer-spending-have-delivered-growth-vladimir-putins.
- Tiezzi, Shannon (2014) ‘China’s “New Silk Road” vision revealed’, The Diplomat, 9 May. http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/chinas-new-silk-road-vision-revealed/.
- Ting, Shi (2014) ‘Xi risks backlash in pushing Silk Road idea: Neighbouring nations prove wary of “too powerful”’, Cape Times (South Africa), 27 November.Google Scholar
- Uyghur American Association (2014) News release: ‘Central Asia: Can China’s Silk Road Vision Coexist with a Eurasian Union?’, US Official News, 18 November.Google Scholar
- Valdai Club (2014) ‘Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club’, President of the Russian Federation website, 24 October. http://eng.kremlin.ru/news/23137.
- Voloshin, Georgiy (2014) ‘Russia-West spat puts Central Asia at risk’, Global Times, 28 August, p. 3. http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/878781.shtml.
- Walker, Shaun and Alberto Nardelli (2015) ‘Russia’s rouble crisis poses threat to nine countries relying on remittances: Drop in rouble value not only decimating amount sent home by workers from Caucasus and central Asia, but could lead to political unrest’, The Guardian, 18 January.Google Scholar
- Weekly Cutting Edge, (2014) ‘China offers enhanced cooperation as Russia struggles’, Weekly Cutting Edge, 28 December.Google Scholar
- Weir, Fred (2014) ‘Russia, China plan war games, arms sales. Could alliance be in the cards?: With Russia alienated by the West and China eager to buy high-end weaponry, a joint military pact — though still a long way off — looks increasingly seductive to both’, The Christian Science Monitor, 21 November.Google Scholar
- Xinhua News Agency (2013) ‘Joint Statement of the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Win–Win Cooperation and Deepening the Comprehensive Partnership of Strategic Coordination’, Beijing, in Chinese, 22 March.Google Scholar
- Zevelev, Igor (2014) ‘The Russian World Boundaries: Russia’s national identity transformation and new foreign policy doctrine’, Russia in Global Affairs, 7 June. http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/print/number/The-Russian-World-Boundaries-16707.