Russian Neo-Revisionism and Dilemmas of Eurasian Integration

  • Richard Sakwa


Eurasian integration was the centrepiece of President Vladimir Putin’s third term in the Kremlin. His keynote article published in October 2011, a few months before the presidential election of 4 March 2014, emphasized the success of the Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, which was completed on 1 July 2011, and the imminent creation on 1 January 2012 of the Single Economic Area with the three countries including standardized legislation and the free movement of capital, services and labour. Putin outlined plans for the enlargement of this project to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (and Armenia) and its evolution into a Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) and eventually a Eurasian Union (EaU). Putin insisted that the integrative dynamic in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was prompted in part by the challenge of the global economic crisis, but also reflected the needs and traditions of the region. The distinguishing feature of the envisaged Eurasian Union is the creation of supranational structures, including a much-enhanced Eurasian Economic Union Commission in which the four founding members (by now Armenia had joined) plus Kyrgyzstan would each have two commissioners with equal rights. Putin noted that it had taken 40 years to travel from the European Coal and Steel Community to the full-fledged European Union, a path that he suggested would be traversed far more quickly in Eurasia.


European Union Shanghai Cooperation Organization European Union Enlargement Eastern Partnership Atlantic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aslund, Anders (2012) ‘Putin’s Eurasian illusion will lead to isolation’, Moscow Times, 21 June.Google Scholar
  2. Bershidsky, Leonid (2014) ‘No illusions left, I’m leaving Russia’, Moscow Times, 19 June.Google Scholar
  3. Bugajski, Janusz (2014) ‘Russia as a Pole of Power: Putin’s Regional Integration Agenda’, in Stephen J. Blank (ed.), Politics and Economics in Putin’s Russia, Carlisle Barracks, PA, US Army War College Press, pp. 175–210.Google Scholar
  4. Clinton, Hillary (2012) ‘Clinton calls Eurasian Integration an effort to re-Sovietize’, RFE/RL, Russia Report, 9 December.Google Scholar
  5. Copsey, Nathaniel and Karolina Pomorska (2014) ‘The Influence of Newer Member States in the European Union: The Case of Poland and the Eastern Partnership’, Europe-Asia Studies, 66(3), May, pp. 421–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dragneva, Rilka and Kataryna Wolczuk (eds) (2013) Eurasian Economic Integration: Law, Policy and Politics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  7. Dutkiewicz, Piotr and Richard Sakwa (eds) (2015) Eurasian Integration: The View From Within. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Furman, Ekaterina and Alexander Libman (2015) ‘Europeanisation and the Eurasian Economic Union’, in Piotr Dutkiewicz and Richard Sakwa (eds), Eurasian Integration: The View From Within. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 173–192.Google Scholar
  9. Gates, Robert (2014) Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War. London: W.H. Allen.Google Scholar
  10. Haukkala, Hiski (2008a) ‘A Norm-Maker or a Norm-Taker? The Changing Normative Parameters of Russia’s Place in Europe’, in Ted Hopf (ed.), Russia’s European Choice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 35–56.Google Scholar
  11. Haukkala, Hiski (2008b) ‘The European Union as a Regional Normative Hegemon: The Case of European Neighbourhood Policy’, Europe-Asia Studies, 60(9), November, pp. 1601–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill, William H. (2012) Russia, the Near Abroad and the West: Lessons from the Moldova-Transdniestria Conflict. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Karasik, Theodore and Heinrich Matthee (2014) ‘Russia’s Emerging Defense and Security Doctrine’, The Real News, 9 June., in Johnson’s Russia List, No. 129, Item 39.
  14. Kozak Memorandum (2003) ‘Russian Draft Memorandum on the basic principles of the state structure of a united state in Moldova’, Kozak Memorandum, 17 November. e=web&cd=3&ved=0CC0QFjAC& sg=AFQjCNGPjcF7ZcNpNXIWRyxHQzBkodUSsQ&sig2=JfsMMfxzVa9Kb1lCLO3QAQ&bvm=bv.80642063,d.aWw.Google Scholar
  15. Marsh, Christopher and Nikolas K. Gvosdev (2013) Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors and Sectors. New York: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  16. Nye, Joseph S. (2013) ‘What Russia and China Don’t Get About Soft Power’, Foreign Policy, 29 April.
  17. Putin, Vladimir (2001) ‘Speech in the Budestag of the Federal Republic of Germany’, 25 September.
  18. Putin, Vladimir (2007) ‘Russian President Vladimir Putin’s Speech at the 2007 Munich Conference on Security Policy’, 10 February. Scholar
  19. Putin, Vladimir (2010) ‘Von Lissabon bis Wladiwostok. Handelspakt zwischen Russland und Europa: Moskau will als Lehre aus der größten Krise der Weltwirtschaft seit acht Jahrzehnten wesentlich enger mit der Europäischen Union zusammenarbeiten’, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 25 November.
  20. Putin, Vladimir (2011) ‘Novyi integratsionnyi proekt dlya Evrazii: budushchee, kotoroe rozhdaetsya segodnya’, Izvestiya, 4 October, p. 1.
  21. Putin, Vladimir (2013a) ‘Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club’, 19 September. Scholar
  22. Putin, Vladimir (2013b) ‘Poslanie Prezidenta Federal’nomu Sobraniyu’, 12 December. Scholar
  23. Putin, Vladimir (2014) ‘Russia-EU Summit’, 28 January. Scholar
  24. Sakwa, Richard (2008) Putin, 2nd edn. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Sakwa, Richard (2015) ‘Dualism at Home and Abroad: Russian Foreign Policy Neo-Revisionism and Bicontinentalism’, in David Cadier and Margot Light (eds), Russia’s Foreign Policy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Samokhvalov, Vsevolod (2014) Review of William H. Hill, Russia, the Near Abroad and the West: Lessons from the Moldova-Transdniestria Conflict. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press (2012), Europe-Asia Studies, 66(6), August, pp. 1021–1022.Google Scholar
  27. Stent, Angela (2014) The Limits of Partnership: US-Russian Relations in the Twenty-First Century. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Tholens, Simone and Raffaella A. Del Sarto (2014) ‘Partnership or Power Projection? The EU and its “Neighbourhood”’, 18 November. Scholar
  29. Tolksdorf, Dominik (2014) The EU, Russia and the Eastern Partnership: What Dynamics under the New German Government? Russie.Nei.Visions No. 74 Paris, IFRI, February.Google Scholar
  30. Tsygankov, Andrei P. (2014) Russia and the West from Alexander to Putin: Honor in International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard Sakwa 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Sakwa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations