Advertisement

Brazil’s Rise and Its Soft Power Strategy in South America

  • Miriam Gomes Saraiva
Part of the Palgrave Studies in International Relations Series book series (PSIR)

Abstract

Since 2003, in a shifting international scenario of increasing fragmentation and following the decline of the liberal world order seen in the 1990s, Brazil has taken assertive action to expand its participation in multilateral forums and debates on global political matters as part of a diplomatic strategy that envisages a reformulation of existing international institutions. Brazil’s regional context has also proved beneficial to its rise. Since 11 September 2001, the US has neglected its foreign policy towards Latin America to make way for its War on Terror. The lack of any structured US behaviour in South America persisted even when Barack Obama took office. Meanwhile, in the same year, Argentina (Brazil’s historical rival for hegemony in the Southern Cone) found itself weakened by the regional political and economic crisis. The rise of new governments keen to reformulate the international political setting from the beginning of the century further reduced the alignment of these countries with the US. It was the conjunction of all these factors that paved the way for Brazil to take an increasingly autonomous approach in the region.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Regional Governance North American Free Trade Agreement South American Country Soft Power 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Burges, S. (2005) ‘Bounded by the Reality of Trade: Practical Limits to a South American Region’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18(3), 437–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burges, S. (2009) Brazilian Foreign Policy after the Cold War, Gainsville: University Press of Florida.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burges, S. (2010) ‘Brazil as Regional Leader: Meeting the Chávez Challenge’, Current History 109(724), February, 53–59.Google Scholar
  4. Celestino, H. (2014) Sedução, a Falta Que Ela Faz, O Globo, October 5, p. 55.Google Scholar
  5. Costa, D. (2003) Estratégia nacional: a cooperação sul-americana para a inserção internacional do Brasil, Porto Alegre: L&PM.Google Scholar
  6. Couto, L. F. and R. Padula (2012) ‘Integração da infraestrutura na América do Sul nos anos 2000: do regionalismo aberto às perspectivas de mudança’, in A. Serbín, L. Martínez, and H. Ramanzini Jr. (eds), El regionalismo post-liberal en América Latina y el Caribe: nuevos actores, nuevos temas, nuevos desafíos. Anuario de la integración regional y el Gran Caribe 2012, Buenos Aires: CRIES, 449–477.Google Scholar
  7. Dabène, O. (2012) ‘Explaining Latin America’s Fourth Wave of Regionalism. Regional Integration of a Third Kind’, paper prepared for delivery at 2012 Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, San Francisco, 23–26 May.Google Scholar
  8. Folha de São Paulo (2013) ‘América do Sul perde fatia nos investimentos externos do Brasil’, 3 August 2013, Mercado 2, p. 5.Google Scholar
  9. Gratius, S. (2011) ‘Brazil and Europe towards 2015’, Policy Brief 67, http://www.fride.org/download/PB_67_Brazil_Europe_2015_Eng.pdf, date accessed 18 June 2014.
  10. Gratius, S. and M. G. Saraiva (2013) ‘Continental Regionalism: Brazil’s Prominent Role in the Americas’, in M. Emerson and R. Flores (eds), Enhancing the Brazil- EU Strategic Partnership. From the Bilateral and Regional to the Global, Brussels: CEPS, 218–236.Google Scholar
  11. Hirst, M., M. R. Lima, and L. Pinheiro (2010) ‘A Política Externa Brasileira em Tempos de Novos Horizontes e Desafios’, Análise de Conjuntura OPSA 12, December, http://www.observatorio.iesp.uerj.br/images/pdf/analise/81_analises_AC_n_12_dez_2010.pdf, date accessed 12 October 2014.
  12. Hurrell, A. (2006) ‘Hegemony, Liberalism, and Global Order: What Space for would-be Great Powers?’ International Affairs 82(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hurrell, A. (2010) ‘Brazil and the New Global Order’, Current History, February, 60–66.Google Scholar
  14. Lafer, C. (2001) Inaugural speech as foreign minister, http://www.funag.gov.br/chdd/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=148%3Acelsolafer&catid=55%3Aministros&Itemid=92, date accessed 7 June 2014.
  15. Malamud, A. (2009) ‘Leadership without Followers: The Contested Case for Brazilian Power Status’, in E. Martins and M. G. Saraiva (eds), Brasil-União Europeia-América do Sul. Anos2010–2020, Rio de Janeiro: KAS, 126–148.Google Scholar
  16. Malamud, A. and C. Dri (2013) ‘Spillover Effects and Supranational Parliaments: The Case of MERCOSUR’, Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research 19(2), 224–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Merke, F. (2008) Identidad y Política Exterior en la Argentina y en Brasil, FLACSO Buenos Aires, PhD Dissertation.Google Scholar
  18. Motta Veiga, P. and S. P. Rios (2007) O regionalismo pós-liberal, na América do Sul: origens, iniciativas e dilemas, Santiago de Chile: CEPAL — Série Comércio Internacional n.82. http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/5/30045/S82CI_L2776e_P_Oregionalismo_pos_liberal_America_do_Sul.pdf, date accessed 19 June 2014.Google Scholar
  19. Nolte, D. (2011) ‘Regional Powers and Regional Governance’, in N. Godehardt and D. Nabers (eds), Regional Powers and Regional Orders, London/New York: Routledge, 49–67.Google Scholar
  20. Nye, J. (2004) Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  21. Pinheiro, L. (2004) Política externa brasileira, Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed.Google Scholar
  22. Rubiolo, M. F. (2013) ‘Emerging Economic Actors in the South American Economic Scenario: China — Southeast Asia and Argentina since 2007’, Mural Internacional IV(1), 27–37, http://www.e-publicacoes.uerj.br/index.php/muralinternacional/article/view/6754/4815, date accessed 13 October 2014.Google Scholar
  23. Saraiva, M. G. (2013) ‘Novas abordagens para análise dos processos de integração na América do Sul: o caso brasileiro’, Carta Internacional 8(1), 3–21, http://www.cartainternacional.abri.org.br/index.php/Carta, date accessed 18 June 2014.Google Scholar
  24. Saraiva, M. G. (2014) ‘The Brazilian Soft Power Tradition’, Current History 113, 64–69.Google Scholar
  25. Saraiva, M. G. and M. Valença (2011) ‘Brasil potencia regional con intereses globales’, Diálogo Político XXVIII, 99–119.Google Scholar
  26. Schirm, S. (2010) ‘Leaders in Need of Followers: Emerging Powers in Global Governance’, European Journal of International Relations 16, 197–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Silva, A. M. (1995) ‘O Brasil no continente e no mundo: atores e imagens na política externa brasileira contemporânea’, Estudos Históricos 8(15), 95–118.Google Scholar
  28. Sorgine, G. F. (2014) Regionalismo pós-liberal e a América do Sul: a necessidade de legitimação do novo regionalismo brasileiro, PPGRI/UERJ, Master’s Thesis.Google Scholar
  29. Vigevani, T., H. Ramazini Jr, G. Favaron, and R. Correia (2008) ‘O papel da integração regional para o Brasil: universalismo, soberania e percepção das elites’, Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional 51(1), 5–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yee, A. S. (2011) ‘The Causal Effects of Ideas on Policies’, in W. Carlsnaes and S. Guzzini (eds), Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. V, London: Sage, 29–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Miriam Gomes Saraiva 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Gomes Saraiva

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations