Concluding Remarks

  • Gian Luca Gardini
  • Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida
Part of the Palgrave Studies in International Relations Series book series (PSIR)


Brazil has risen. Its economy is the seventh largest in the world in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) (World Bank, 2015). Its military spending is the highest in Latin America, although Brazil does not have nuclear capability. Brazil’s international activism in the last ten years has been remarkable, with the direct launch of, or active participation in, integration initiatives regionally (Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA), Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC)) and with an acknowledged growing role internationally (World Trade Organization (WTO), climate change negotiations, leading the UN mission in Haiti). However, the rising trajectory of Brazil, at the time of publishing, seems to have come to a halt.


Gross Domestic Product Foreign Policy World Trade Organization Strategic Alliance International Relation 
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© Gian Luca Gardini and Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gian Luca Gardini
  • Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

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