Preventing Trial

  • Tim Calkins


IF CONSUMERS DON’T TRY A product, they won’t buy it again. This is why limiting trial is at the heart of defensive strategy, with many of the most intense battles playing out in this realm. If you can reduce the number of people who try your competitor’s product, you can be quite confident it will fail to develop into a successful, established business.


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  1. 3.
    David J. Bryce, Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Nile W. Hatch, “Competing Against Free,” Harvard Business Review 89, no. 6 (June 2011): 108.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Stephen Denny, Killing Giants (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2011), 88.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    Karen Dillon interview of A. G. Lafley, “I Think of my Failures as a Gift,” Harvard-Business Review 89, no. 4 (April 2011): 87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tim Calkins 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim Calkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Kellogg School of ManagementUSA

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