From Tripartite Division to Universal Humanism: Alternative Islamic Global International Relations

  • Ahmed Al-Dawoody


The advent of Islam in Arabia in 610 CE generated a reaction of hostility towards the Prophet Muḥammad (b. 570) and the believers in the new religion because of its monotheistic message, which constituted a major threat to the political and economic power and prestige of Arab polytheists. Due to the mounting persecution and hostility, in 622 CE Muslims were forced to flee their home town of Mecca and found a safe haven in Medina, where they established a state and hence the concept of the Muslim ummah (nation) started to develop. However, this does not mean that hostilities came to an end, on the contrary, a series of fights and small wars took place between the new Muslim ummah and their enemies. Following the death of Prophet Muḥammad, the caliphs (heads of the Islamic state) initiated a series of futūḥāt (literally openings, campaigns) to spread the new religion. Based on these historical precedents and the scriptural sources of Islam, the Qur׳ān and the sunnah (tradition) of Prophet Muḥammad, on the one hand, and the paradigms of international relations of their times, on the other, Muslim jurists and scholars have interpreted and formulated Islamic theories of international relations.


International Relation Muslim Country Islamic State Muslim Scholar Muslim Minority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Ahmed Al-Dawoody 2016

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  • Ahmed Al-Dawoody

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