Article 2 of the Supplement to Fundamental Law and the Constitutional Politics of Transition to Parliamentary Legislation

  • Farshad Malek-Ahmadi


Principles of order embodied in constitutions may be heterogeneous and potentially conflicting. Constitutions are

sediments of diverse historical processes, crystallized into a small number of indigenous and borrowed principles, which are brought together in a single text. These principles, and the practices associated with them, become effective social forces to the extent that they are borne by social groups and institutions. Written constitutions represent compromises among the social and institutional bearers of these principles. They set relative weights to inherently heterogeneous principles of political order, thereby bringing them into a measure of congruence.


Majority Vote Committee Member Random Drawing Islamic Republic General Commandment 


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  1. 4.
    Nikki R. Keddie, “The Origins of the Religious-Radical Alliance in Iran,” Past and Present, 34 (April 1962): 70–80. Keddie makes it clear that “[t]he alliance between much of the religious leadership of Iran and the most advanced and Westernized political activists is virtually without parallel either in the Islamic or the non-Islamic world,” p. 70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 11.
    Ahmad Kasravi, 1357 (1979) Tarikhe mashruteh Iran, Vol. 1, Tehran: Amir Kabir, p. 317.Google Scholar

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© Farshad Malek-Ahmadi 2015

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  • Farshad Malek-Ahmadi

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