Democratization and Its Impediments in Iran

  • Farshad Malek-Ahmadi


A number of analytical studies in recent years have considered the relations between state and society in Iran. This chapter will offer a brief review of these works with a focus on the impediments and complications to the process of democratization.


Civil Society External Actor Security Force Islamic Republic Ruling Elite 
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  1. 7.
    David Crist. 2012, The Twilight War: The Secret History of America’s Thirty-Year Conflict with Iran. New York: Penguin Books, 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 11.
    Quoted in Maryam Panah, 2007, The Islamic Revolution and the World: Global Dimensions of the Iranian Revolution. Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2007, p. 132,.Google Scholar
  3. 39.
    Con Coughlin, 2009. Khomeini’s Ghost: Iran Since 1979. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

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© Farshad Malek-Ahmadi 2015

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  • Farshad Malek-Ahmadi

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