Advertisement

Social Psychology and Peace

  • Shelley McKeown Jones
  • Daniel J. Christie

Abstract

Social psychologists seek to understand how social phenomena are related to attitudes and behaviours, and are impacted by group presence and belonging. Interest in social psychology flourished in the 1940s.1 Motivated by the Holocaust, researchers wished to understand why individuals would perform such acts of evil, and under what conditions these acts would be most likely to occur. This surge in research paved the way for social psychology’s contribution to the understanding of peace: a contribution not always recognized by social psychologists.2

Keywords

Social Dominance Orientation Social Identity Theory Intergroup Relation Intergroup Contact Disciplinary Perspective 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Stephen Gibson, ‘“I’m Not a War Monger But … ”: Discourse Analysis and Social Psychological Peace Research’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 22 (2012): 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Christopher Cohrs and Klaus Boehnke, ‘Social Psychology and Peace: An Introductory Overview’, Social Psychology 39 (2008): 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Muzafer Sherif, ‘A Study of Some Social Factors in Perception’, Archives of Psychology 27 (1935): 187.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Solomon E. Asch, ‘Effects of Group Pressure, upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgments’, in Groups, Leadership, and Men. Pittsburgh, ed. Harold S. Guetzkow (Lancaster: Carnegie Press, 1951), 177–190.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jerry Burger, ‘Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today’, American Psychologist 64 (2009): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Susan T. Fiske, ‘What We Know Now about Bias and Intergroup Conflict, Problem of the Century’, Current Directions in Psychological Science 11 (2002): 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson and Nevitt Sanford, in The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper and Row, 1950).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robert A. Altemeyer, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    John Duckitt, ‘Authoritarianism and Group Identification: A New View of an Old Construct’, Political Psychology 10 (1989): 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henri Tajfel and John C. Turner, ‘An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict’, in The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, eds William G. Austin and Stephen Worchel (Monterey: Brooks-Cole, 1979).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Richard V. Wagner, ‘Direct Violence’, in Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century, eds Daniel J. Christie, Richard V. Wagner and Deborah Du-Nann Winter (Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2001).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ervin Staub, Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict and Terrorism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gordon A. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1954).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muzafer Sherif, O. J. Harvey, B. Jack White, William R. Hood and Carolyn W. Sherif, Intergroup Cooperation and Competition: The Robbers Cave Experiment (Norman: University Book Exchange, 1961).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robert Slavin, ‘Effects of Biracial Learning Teams on Cross-Racial Friendships’, Journal of Educational Psychology 71 (1979): 381–387;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Russell H. Weigel, Patricia L. Wiser and Stuart W. Cook, ‘The Impact of Cooperative Learning Experiences on Cross-Ethnic Relations and Attitudes’, Journal of Social Issues 31 (1975): 219–244;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shelley McKeown, Ed Cairns, Maurice Stringer and Gordon Rae, ‘Micro-Ecological Behavior and Intergroup Contact’, Journal of Social Psychology 152 (2012): 340–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner and Kerry Kawakami, ‘Intergroup Contact: The Past, Present, and the Future’, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 6 (2003): 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 17.
    Thomas F. Pettigrew and Linda R. Tropp, ‘A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (2006): 751–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    Alberto Voci and Miles Hewstone, ‘Intergroup Contact and Prejudice toward Immigrants in Italy: The Mediational Role of Anxiety and the Moderational Role of Group Salience’, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 6 (2003): 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    Tania Tam, Miles Hewstone, Ed Cairns, Nicole Tausch, Greg Maio and Jared Kenworthy, ‘The Impact of Intergroup Emotions on Forgiveness in Northern Ireland’, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 10 (2007): 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Tania Tam, Miles Hewstone, Jared Kenworthy and Ed Cairns, ‘Intergroup Trust in Northern Ireland’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 35 (2009): 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 21.
    Ed Cairns, Jared Kenworthy, Andrea Campbell and Miles Hewstone, ‘The Role of In-Group Identification, Religious Group Membership and Intergroup Conflict in Moderating In-Group and Out-Group Affect’, British Journal of Social Psychology 45 (2006): 701–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Rhiannon N. Turner, Miles Hewstone, Alberto Voci and Christina Vonofakou, ‘A Test of the Extended Contact Hypothesis: The Mediating Role of Intergroup Anxiety, Perceived Ingroup and Outgroup Norms, and Inclusion of the Outgroup in the Self’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (2008): 843–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Rhiannon N. Turner and Richard J. Crisp, ‘Imagining Intergroup Contact Reduces Implicit Prejudice’, British Journal of Social Psychology 49 (2010): 129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    John A. Dixon, Kevin Durrheim and Colin Tredoux, ‘Beyond the Optimal Contact Strategy: A Reality Check for the Contact Hypothesis’, American Psychologist, 60 (2005): 697–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Daniel J. Christie and Cristina J. Montiel, ‘Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace’, American Psychologist 68 (2013): 502–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Roger W. Russell, ‘Role for Psychologists in the Formulation and Evaluation of Policy’, Journal of Social Issues 17 (1961): 79–84;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ralph K. White, Psychology and the Prevention of Nuclear War (New York: University Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Johan Galtung, ‘Violence, Peace and Peace Research’, Journal of Peace Research 6 (1969): 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Mahlon B. Smith, ‘Foreword’, in Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century, eds Daniel J. Christie, R. V. Wagner and Deborah Du-Nann Winter (Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2001), V–VII.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Daniel J. Christie, ‘What Is Peace Psychology the Psychology of?’ Journal of Social Issues 62 (2006): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Johanna K. Vollhardt and Rezarta Bilali, ‘Social Psychology’s Contribution to the Psychological Study of Peace: A Review’, Social Psychology 39 (2008): 12–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 35.
    Kurt Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science (New York: Harper, 1951).Google Scholar
  35. 36.
    John T. Cacioppo and Gary G. Berntson, ‘Social Psychological Contributions to the Decade of the Brain: Doctrine of Multilevel Analysis’, American Psychologist 47 (1992): 1019–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Oliver Richmond, ‘Post-Liberal Peace: Eirenism and the Everyday’, Review of International Studies 35 (2009): 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Oliver Richmond, Peace and International Relations: A New Agenda (New York: Routledge, 2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 40.
    Margaret G. Hermann and Charles W. Kegley Jr, ‘Rethinking Democracy and International Peace: Perspectives from Political Psychology’, International Studies Quarterly 39 (1995): 511–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 41.
    Richard K. Herrmann and Jonathan W. Keller, ‘Beliefs, Values, and Strategic Choice: US leaders’ Decisions to Engage, Contain, and Use Force in an Era of Globalization’, Journal of Politics 66 (2004): 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 42.
    Vollhardt, Johanna K., and Rezarta Bilali. ‘Social Psychology’s Contribution to the Psychological Study of Peace: A Review’, Social Psychology 39, no. 1 (2008): 12–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 43.
    Kenneth J. Gergen, ‘The Social Constructionist Movement in Modern Psychology’, American Psychologist 40 (1985): 266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 44.
    Scott L. Moeschberger and Rebekah A. Phillips DeZalia, Symbols That Bind, Symbols That Divide: The Semiotics of Peace and Conflict (New York: Springer, 2014);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olivera Simić, Zala Volcˇiˇc and Catherine R. Philpot, Peace Psychology in the Balkans: Dealing with a Violent Past While Building Peace (New York: Springer, 2013);Google Scholar
  44. Diane Bretherton and Siew Fang Law, Research Methods in Peace Psychology (New York: Springer, 2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 47.
    Charlotte Bunch, ‘Women’s Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-vision of Human Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly 12 (1990): 486–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 48.
    Linden L. Nelson, ‘Peaceful Personality’, in Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, ed. Daniel. J. Christie (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), 823–827.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shelley McKeown Jones and Daniel J. Christie 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shelley McKeown Jones
  • Daniel J. Christie

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations