• William S. Bradley
  • Kosuke Shimizu
Open Access


The chapters in this edited collection comprise a significant representation of research that was carried out at the Afrasian Research Centre of Ryukoku University in the past three years. While most of the authors are based in Japan and the majority of the material focuses on Japanese transnational and internationalization processes and movements, the connection of people, language, and politics in and to the wider region entailed that we look beyond the borders of Japan to the Asia-Pacific in framing many of the discussions both in individual chapters and in the collection as a whole. Some of these movements operate at a basic level such as the emigration of Japanese to the United States (Honda, Chapter 3), the immigration of foreigners to Japan and other countries (Carlos, Chapter 9), or the integration of foreign (often Asian) children into diversifying school systems (Gunderson, Chapter 4) or foreign domestic (often Asian) workers into Europe and elsewhere (Karatani, Chapter 8). In other cases, the processes are less obviously movements within national systems, as with language policies in Japanese education (Nagamine, Chapter 6 and Takakuwa, Chapter 7) or across international systems as with the language of International Relations (Shimizu, Chapter 5). In all cases, however, the phenomena under study cannot simply be reduced to one-way processes or even two-way phenomena of transfer and reception or resistance. The multiple levels of multicultural circulation require increasingly sophisticated theoretical models of understanding human activity that transcend national borders in the 21st century.


International Relation Language Policy Dual Citizenship Japanese Education Multicultural Policy 
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  1. Crowder, G. (2013). Theories of multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar

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© William S. Bradley and Kosuke Shimizu 2014

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  • William S. Bradley
  • Kosuke Shimizu

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