“Global Jinzai,” Japanese Higher Education, and the Path to Multiculturalism: Imperative, Imposter, or Immature?

  • Julian Chapple
Open Access


Japanese society has, at various times throughout its history, been led in different directions by state policy makers’ catch phrases. The final societal destination of these slogans has changed to suit the needs of the times, but their reoccurrence and importance can neither be denied nor overlooked. Phrases and slogans such as sonnō-jōi (Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians), fukoku kyōhei (Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military), tōyō no dōtoku, seiyō no gakugei (Eastern Ethics, Western Science), wakon yōsai (Western Learning, Japanese Spirit), bunmei kaika (Civilization, Enlightenment) and dastua nyū ō (Leave Asia, Join the West) are all examples of “battle cries” behind which society was rallied in order to rid itself of some seemingly corrupting influence or to adopt systems in order to make a radical change in direction. More recently, while arguably less provocative in nature, catch phrases have continued to be employed to focus national attention on goals deemed important by the nation’s state-makers today. Here, words like kindaika (modernization), ōbeika (Westernization), kokusaika (internationalization), and gurōbaruka (globalization) have adorned official documents and the media reflecting the needs or goals of each respective period (Chapple, 2002).


International Student Global Citizenship Japanese Student Japan Time English Language Ability 


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© Julian Chapple 2014

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  • Julian Chapple

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