“Global Jinzai,” Japanese Higher Education, and the Path to Multiculturalism: Imperative, Imposter, or Immature?
Japanese society has, at various times throughout its history, been led in different directions by state policy makers’ catch phrases. The final societal destination of these slogans has changed to suit the needs of the times, but their reoccurrence and importance can neither be denied nor overlooked. Phrases and slogans such as sonnō-jōi (Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians), fukoku kyōhei (Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military), tōyō no dōtoku, seiyō no gakugei (Eastern Ethics, Western Science), wakon yōsai (Western Learning, Japanese Spirit), bunmei kaika (Civilization, Enlightenment) and dastua nyū ō (Leave Asia, Join the West) are all examples of “battle cries” behind which society was rallied in order to rid itself of some seemingly corrupting influence or to adopt systems in order to make a radical change in direction. More recently, while arguably less provocative in nature, catch phrases have continued to be employed to focus national attention on goals deemed important by the nation’s state-makers today. Here, words like kindaika (modernization), ōbeika (Westernization), kokusaika (internationalization), and gurōbaruka (globalization) have adorned official documents and the media reflecting the needs or goals of each respective period (Chapple, 2002).
KeywordsInternational Student Global Citizenship Japanese Student Japan Time English Language Ability
- Ashizawa, S. (2012). Why now? Global jinzai and gap year. Paper presented at Meiji University Research Institute of International Education Inaugural International Symposium Series 3, Tokyo. Retrieved from http://www.britishcouncil.jp/sites/ britishcouncil.jp/files/edu-ashizawa-meiji-university.pdf.Google Scholar
- Chapple, J. (2002). Japan’s policy of internationalisation: Prospects for a multicultural society (Ph.D. dissertation). Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
- Lie, J. (2004). Multiethnic Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Maher, J. C. & Yashiro, K. (Eds) (1995). Multilingual Japan. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (1999). Japanese government policies in education, science, sports and culture 1999: Educational reform in progress. Tokyo: Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture Japan.Google Scholar
- Nihon Keizai Shimbun (2012, December 21). Jinzai kyōsō kokkyō naku uchimuki kaeru kōki ni [A good opportunity to change from unward-looking].Google Scholar
- Nihon Keizai Shimbun (2013a, January 18). Kyōin kōsō “uchimuki” yabure [It’s faculty who need to break the “inward-looking” mentality].Google Scholar
- Nihon Keizai Shimbun (2013b, February 9). Kaigai ryūgaku 6nen renzoku gen [The number of students studying abroad falls for the 6th straight year].Google Scholar
- Nihon Keizai Shimbun (2013c, April 21). Gaikokujin kyōin 1man nin ni [Increase the number of foreign faculty to 10,000].Google Scholar
- Nikkeiren K. T. I. (1997). Gurōbaru shakai ni kōken suru jinzai no ikusei o [Towards to development of human resources capable of contributing to a global society]. Tokyo: Nihon Keiei sha dantai remei Kyoiku bu.Google Scholar
- Oka, Y. (2013, August 16). Kokusaijin yōsei ni “global kō” monkashō 100 ko shitei e [To develop international people MEXT plans to select 100 “global schools”]. Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved from http://www.asahi.com/edu/articles/TKY20130814043 2.html
- Ouyang, G. & McAlpine, S. (2013). Global competency is not enough: Attaining global citizenship. In EAIE summer forum: Discussing international education: Social responsibility (pp. 8–10). Amsterdam: European Association for International Education.Google Scholar
- Ş. İlgu Özler (2013). Global citizenship versus diplomacy: Internationalisation of higher education with a collective consciousness. In A. Labi (Eds), Weaving the future of global partnerships (pp. 13–18). Amsterdam: European Association for International Education.Google Scholar
- Pollock, S. (2012). Cultivating “global jinzai” critical to Japan’s international success. Turnstone Ventures. Retrieved from http://www.turnstoneventures.com/cultivating _global_jinazi.html.
- Sankei S. (2012, August 12). Sankangaku kyōdō de gurōbaru jidai ni tekiō [Government, industry and universities working together to adapt to the global age].Google Scholar
- Sawa, T. (2013, June 24). Commentary: Top students shunning Japan. The Japan Times.Google Scholar