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Viva Voce: Voice and Voicelessness Among Twelfth-Century Clerics

  • Bruno Lemesle
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)

Abstract

Writing in his Summa on Gratian’s Decretum1 toward 1164, canonist Rufinus of Bologna2 evokes criminal prelates, saying, “vocem accusandi, reprehendi, docendi non habent” (they do not have a voice to accuse, punish, teach).3 Should this enumeration be understood as a commonplace statement about three possible functions of the voice, or should we suspect a set of deeper associations? Is Rufinus’s use of the word “voice” simply an alternative to other rhetorical or stylistic possibilities—such as the word “word” in particular—or is it truly a deliberate choice on the part of the canonist?

Keywords

Pastoral Care Twelfth Century Italian School Clear Voice Demonic Possession 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    On Gratian’s Decretum, see Peter Landau, “Gratian and the Decretum Gratiani,” in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234, ed. Wilfried Hartmann and Kenneth Pennington (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2008), 22–54.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Heinrich Singer, ed., Die Summa decretorum des Magister Rufinus (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 1902), ad C 2 q 7 c 53, 258. All translations from the Latin are previously unpublished and have been prepared for this volume. The editor thanks C é dric Giraud for his assistance.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
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© Irit Ruth Kleiman 2015

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  • Bruno Lemesle

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