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Abstract

This chapter looks at ‘three clusters’ of Nazi-German genocidal projects, using the recent formulation by eminent Holocaust historian Christopher Browning. Following Browning’s formulation, it examines Nazi genocide within the German Volksgemeinschaft (national community) of the Greater German Reich, within the German Lebensraum (living space) in the conquered eastern territories, and within the German Machtbereich (sphere of power) in central and eastern Europe, western Europe, and southeastern Europe.1 It shows how Nazi genocidal policies and practices — in each project — were shaped by imperialist-colonial thinking. It also sketches Hitler’s colonial wars for Lebensraum — in Poland, the Baltic states, and European Russia — showing how Ostkrieg (the war in the East) contained an in-built genocidal component which targeted Jewish and non-Jewish non-combatants.

Keywords

Mass Shooting Jewish Question Internal Colonialism Polish Elite Colonial Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 4.
    Adam Jones, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (London: Routledge, 2006), p. 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 5.
    See Martin Shaw, War and Genocide: Organized Killing in Modern Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003).Google Scholar
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  5. 10.
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  7. 13.
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  8. 16.
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    Quoted in Christopher R. Browning, ‘How Ordinary Germans Did It’, New York Review of Books, Vol. LX, No. 11 (20 June 2013), pp. 30–2.Google Scholar
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    For an excellent comprehensive analysis of the German police, see Edward B. Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions: Enforcing Racial War in the East (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2005).Google Scholar
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    Father Patrick Desbois, The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest’s Journey to Uncover the Truth Behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).Google Scholar
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    Götz Aly, ‘Final Solution’: Nazi Population Policy and the Murder of the European Jews (London: Arnold, 1999), n. 12, pp. 247.Google Scholar
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    For support for this view, see Michael Burleigh, ‘What is Nazi Germany Had Defeated the Soviet Union?’, in Niall Ferguson (ed.), Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (New York: Basic Books, 1999 [1997]), pp. 321–47Google Scholar
  24. 55.
    Recently, it has been suggested (rightly, in my view) that the ‘colonial aspect’ of the Holocaust is also relevant for the western European history of the Nazi Judeocide. In this conceptualization, the Dutch case is recognized as ‘internal colonialism,, as part of a process of ethnic cleansing (Völkerverschieburg) to ‘rid’ the Netherlands of its Jews; it is argued that models of ‘internal colonialism’ were followed in the handling of the Jewish population of the Netherlands. In the Nazi view, to be sure, Scandinavia, Flanders, and the Netherlands (seen as Germanic peoples united by ‘common historical roots’ and, of course, ‘blood’) were destined to become part of the Greater Germanic Empire. Along with the Baltic States, Ukraine, and the General Government (formerly western Poland), the Netherlands was brought under German civil administration. Accordingly, the position of the Netherlands in the Nazi empire ‘corresponded more to the [occupied] territories in the East, which were considered to be part of the Germanic lands. While the level of Nazi violence was ‘rather low’, the Netherlands, nonetheless, had an extremely high number (and proportion) of Jewish victims (compared to the rest of western Europe). See Ido de Haan, ‘Imperialism, Colonialism, and Genocide: The Dutch Case for an International History of the Holocaust’, BMGN — Low Countries Historical Review, Vol. 125, Nos. 2-3 (2010), pp. 301–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 67.
    The figures I use for the Shoah are from Ronnie S. Landau, The Nazi Holocaust (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994 [1992]), p. 316.Google Scholar
  26. 68.
    Christian Gerlach, Extremely Violence Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Carroll P. Kakel, III 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carroll P. KakelIII
    • 1
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins University Centre for Liberal ArtsUSA

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