Beyond Binaries: Strategies for a 21st-Century Gender Equality Agenda
Written ten years ago, Mukhopadhyay’s article, ‘Mainstreaming Gender or ‘Streaming’ Gender Away’, sits at a fascinating juncture in relation to feminist pathways for changing development institutions to advance cultures of equality. The debates about gender mainstreaming as a conceptual framework and as a strategy had significant resonance during the first ten years of the new century. Gender mainstreaming had been hailed as a strategy of choice at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing held in 1995. Less than a decade later a slew of reports and meetings — from the Norway-sponsored meeting Strategies for Gender Equality: Is Mainstreaming a Dead End? (Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2002) to the metaevaluations undertaken by Norway and others,1 — contributed to the growing chorus of voices proclaiming the questionable uptake, cost-benefit or results that most large development agencies had experienced with gender mainstreaming. The lack of accountability for implementing policies and strategies, the millions of dollars invested in watered-down gender training, the growing networks of gender specialists struggling with each other and their institutions for a shrinking pie was constantly interrogated by, what Prugl calls, an ‘international cadre of gender experts who play a key role in translating feminist knowledge into policy applications … [becoming] instruments in the government of gender’ (Prugl 2010).
KeywordsGender Equality Sexual Violence Security Council Gender Specialist Security Council Resolution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arutyunova, A. and C. Clark (2013) Watering the Leaves and Starving the Roots. Washington, DC: AWID.Google Scholar
- AWID (2014) New Actors, New Money. Washington, DC: AWID.Google Scholar
- IFAD Evaluation Cooperation Group (ECG) (2013) Gender Equality and Development Evaluation Units: Lessons from Evaluations of Development Support of Selected Multilateral and Bilateral Agencies, ECG Paper #5, Rome: IFADGoogle Scholar
- Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2002) Strategies for Gender Equality: Is Mainstreaming a Dead End? Report from an Informal Consultation of Gender Focal Points in Multilateral Development Organizations, NMFA, Oslo.Google Scholar
- Operations Evaluation Department (OPEV) (2011) Mainstreaming Gender Equality: A Road to Results or a Road to Nowhere? An Evaluation Synthesis. Working Paper, African Development Bank.Google Scholar
- Prügl, E. (2010) Gender Expertise and Feminist Knowledge. Paper Presented at the Conference on Gender Politics in International Governance, Graduate Institute, Geneva, 6–8 October.Google Scholar
- Sandler, J. (2015) The ‘Warriors Within’: How Feminists Change Bureaucracies and Bureaucracies Change Feminists, in R. Baksh and W. Harcourt (eds) OUP Handbook on Transnational Feminist Movements Oxford. New York: Oxford University Press, 188–214.Google Scholar