Economies of Conflict: Reflecting on the (Re)Production of ‘War Economies’

  • Heather Turcotte


War is an economy of violence that can take on, and transform into, many forms to meet the demands of the global political economy (GPE). Central to war and GPE are long institutionalized colonial narratives about where violence happens in the world. It is not coincidence that the ‘new’ known sites of global violence coincide with conventional economic understandings about which parts of the world have been colonized and exploited for their labour resources, are considered to be underdeveloped, and are in need of a variety of international interventions in order to be brought (back) into the global marketplace. The histories of GAD are central to understanding present conditions of conflict, human insecurity and proliferating ‘war economies’. In particular, this reflection is concerned with the gendered and racialized colonial histories of violence that frame how we understand the new sites of political and economic conflict and insecurity.


Sexual Violence Niger Delta Political Violence International Relation State Violence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agathangelou, A. M. (2004) Global Political Economy of Sex: Desire, Violence and Insecurity in Mediterranean States Nation States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agathangelou, A. M., M. Bassichis and T. Spira (2008) Intimate Investments: Homonormativity, Global Lockdown, and the Seductions of Empire. Radical History Review, 100, 120–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agathangelou, A. M. and L. H. M. Ling (2003) Desire Industries: Sex Trafficking, UN Peacekeeping, and the Neo-Liberal World Order. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10, 1, 133–148.Google Scholar
  4. Agathangelou, A. M. and L. H. M. Ling (2009) Transforming World Politics: From Empire to Multiple Worlds. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Agathangelou, A. M. and H. M. Turcotte (2010a) Postcolonial Theories and Challenges to ‘First Worldism’, in L. J. Shepherd (ed.) Gender Matters in Global Politics: A Feminist Introduction to International Relations. New York: Routledge, 44–58.Google Scholar
  6. Agathangelou, A. M. and H. M. Turcotte (2010b) ‘Feminist’ Theoretical Inquiries and ‘IR’, in R. Denemark (ed.) The International Studies Encyclopedia, Volume IV. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. (accessed 24 November 2015).Google Scholar
  7. Alexander, M. J. (1994) Not Just (Any) Body Can Be a Citizen: The Politics of Law, Sexuality and Postcoloniality in Trinidad and Tobago and the Bahamas. Feminist Review, 48, 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alexander, M. J. (2005) Pedagogies of Crossing: Mediations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory and the Sacred. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  10. Anzaldúa, G. (1987) Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books.Google Scholar
  11. Betts, R. (ed.) (1966) The Scramble for Africa: Causes and Dimensions of Empire. Boston: Heath.Google Scholar
  12. Bhattacharyya, G. (2008) Dangerous Brown Men: Exploiting Sex, Violence and Feminism in the War on Terror. New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  13. Boahen, A. (1985) Africa Under Colonial Domination, 1800–1935. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter, C. (2000) Surfacing Children: Limitation of Genocidal Rape Discourses. Human Rights Quarterly, 22(2), 428–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, T. (ed.) (2003) The Forum: Gender and International Relations. International Studies Review, 5(2), 287–302.Google Scholar
  16. Chowdhry, G. and S. Nair (eds) (2004) Power, Postcolonialism and International Relations: Reading Race, Gender and Class. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Cioffi, S. (2010) Sweet Crude. New York: Cinema Guild.Google Scholar
  18. Cooper, F. (2002) Africa Since 1940: The Past of the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coronil, F. (1997) The Magical State: Nature, Money, and Modernity in Venezuela. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, A. Y. [1978] (1998) Rape, Racism, and the Capitalist Setting, in James Joy (ed.) The Angela Y. Davis Reader. Malden: Blackwell, 129–137.Google Scholar
  21. DonPedro, I. (2006) Oil in the Water: Crude Power and Militancy in the Niger Delta. Lagos: Forward Communications Limited.Google Scholar
  22. Dozema, J. (2010) Sex Slaves and Discourse Matters: The Construction of Trafficking. New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  23. Ekine, S. (2001) Blood and Oil: Testimonies of Violence from Women in the Niger Delta. Oxford: Center for Democracy and Development.Google Scholar
  24. Eisenstein, Z. (2004) After Empire: Feminisms, Racisms, and the West. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  25. Eisenstein, Z. (2007) Sexual Decoys: Gender, Race, and War in Imperial Democracy. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  26. Enloe, C. (1973) Ethnic Conflict and Political Development. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  27. Enloe, C. (1990) Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  28. Escobar, A. (1995) Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Fanon, F. (1963) The Wretched of the Earth (Trans., Constance Farrington). New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fernandes, L. (2013) Transnational Feminism in the United States: Knowledge, Ethics, and Power. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of a Prison (Trans., Alan Sheridan). New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  32. Giles, W. (2008) Reflections on the Women in Conflict Zones Network. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(1), 102–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giles, W. and J. Hyndman (eds) (2004) Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Goldberg, E. (2007) Beyond Terror: Gender, Narrative, Human Rights. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gramsci, A. (1973) Letters from Prison: Selected (Trans., Lynne Lawner). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  36. Grewal, I. (2005) Transnational America: Feminisms, Diasporas, Neoliberalisms. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hagedorn, J. (2008) A World of Gangs: Armed Young Men and Gangsta Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Hartman, S. (1997) Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hartmann, B. (1995) Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  41. Heineman, E. (2008) The History of Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: Conference Report. Radical History Report, 101, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hesford, W. (2011) Spectacular Rhetorics: Human Rights Visions, Recognitions, Feminisms. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hesford, W. and W. Kozol (eds) (2007) Just Advocacy? Women’s Human Rights, Transnational Feminisms, and the Politics of Representation. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Imam, A., A. Mama and F. Sow (eds) (1997) Engendering African Social Sciences. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  45. Jacobs, S., R. Jacobson and J. Marchbank (eds) (2000) States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  46. Johnston, L. and R. Longhurst (2010) Space, Place, and Sex: Geographies of Sexualities. Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  47. Kaldor, M. (1999) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kaldor, M. (2006) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era (2nd edn). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Kapur, R. (2005) Erotic Justice: Law and the New Politics of Postcolonialism. London: Glasshouse Press.Google Scholar
  50. Klare, M. (2001) Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  51. Klare, M. (2009) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. New York: Henry Holt & Co.Google Scholar
  52. Kobayashi, A. (1994) Unnatural Discourse: ‘Race’ and Gender in Geography. Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 1(2), 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Korf, B., M. Engeler and T. Hagmann (2010) The Geography of Warscape. Third World Quarterly, 31(3), 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuokkanen, R. (2008) Globalization as Racialized, Sexualized Violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2), 216–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lipschutz, R. (2000) After Authority: War, Peace, and Global Politics in the 21st Century. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lipschutz, R. and K. Conca (eds) (1993) The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  57. MacKenzie, M. (2012) Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mama, A. (1997) Shedding the Masks and Tearing the Veils: Cultural Studies for a Post Colonial Africa, in A. Imam, A. Mama and F. Sow (eds) Engendering African Social Sciences. Dakar: CODESRIA, 61–80.Google Scholar
  59. Mama, A. Sheroes and Villians: Conceptualizing Colonial and Contemporary Violence, in M. J. Alexander and C. T. Mohanty (eds) Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. New York: Routledge, 46–62.Google Scholar
  60. Mamdani, M. (1996) Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Mba, N. (1982) Nigerian Women Mobilized: Women’s Political Activity in Southern Nigeria, 1900–1965, Vol. 48, Research Series. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies.Google Scholar
  62. Mbembe, A. (2001) On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mbembe, A. (2003) Necropolitics. Public Culture, 15(1), 11–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McClintock, A. (1995) Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Meintjes, S., A. Pillay and M. Turshen (eds) (2001) The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  66. Mohanram, R. (2007) Imperial White: Race, Diaspora, and the British Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  67. Mohanty, C. T. (1988) Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourse. Feminist Review, 30, 61–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nnmaeka, O. (ed.) (2005) Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  69. Okoji, M. A. (2000) Petroleum Oil and the Niger Delta Environment. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 57(6), 713–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Okonta, I. and O. Douglas (2001) Where Vultures Feast: Shell, Human Rights, and Oil in the Niger Delta. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.Google Scholar
  71. Ó Tuathail, G. (1996) Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  72. Oyewùmí, O. (1997) Invention of Women: Making an African Sense of Western Gender Discourses. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  73. Oyewùmí, O. (ed.) (2003) African Women and Feminism: Reflecting on the Politics of Sisterhood. Trenton: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  74. Pakenham, T. (1991) The Scramble for Africa, 1876–1912. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  75. Peluso, N. and M. Watts (eds) (2001) Violent Environments. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Peterson, V. S. (1992) Gendered States: Feminist (Re)Visions of International Relations Theory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  77. Peterson, V. S. (2011) Gendering Insecurities, Informalization and ‘War Economies’. Tucson: School of Government and Public Policy, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  78. Polgreen, L. (2007) Gangs Terrorize Nigeria’s Vital Oil Region. New York Times, 9 November 2007.
  79. Prashad, V. J. (2007) The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  80. Razack, S. (1998) Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  81. Razack, S. (2008) Casting Out: The Eviction of Muslims from Western Law and Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  82. Reddy, C. (2011) Freedom with Violence: Race, Sexuality, and the US State. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rodney, W. [1972] (1981) How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington: Howard University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Ross, E. (1998) The Malthus Factor: Poverty, Politics and Population in Capitalist Development. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  85. Rowley, M. (2003) A Feminist’s Oxymoron: Globally Gender-Conscious Development, in E. Barriteau (ed.) Confronting Power, Theorizing Gender: Interdisciplinary Perspectives in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 75–97.Google Scholar
  86. Said, E. (1978) Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  87. Scarry, E. (1985) The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Seth, V. (2010) Europe’s Indians: Producing Racial Difference, 1500–1900. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N. and S. Khsheiboun (2009) Palestinian Women’s Voices Challenging Human Rights Activism. Women’s Studies International Forum, 32(5), 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shepherd, L. (2008) Gender, Violence and Security: Discourse as Practice, London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  91. Shigematsu, S. and K. Camacho (eds) (2010) Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  92. Sjoberg, L. (2006) Gender Realities of the Immunity Principal: Why Gender Analysis Needs Feminism. International Studies Quarterly, 50(4), 889–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, A. (2005) Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. Cambridge: South End Press.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, M. (2006) Discourses on Development: Beyond the ‘African Tragedy’, in M. Smith (ed.) Beyond the ‘African Tragedy’: Discourses on Development and the Global Economy. London: Ashgate, 1–24.Google Scholar
  95. Spivak, G. (1988) Can the Subaltern Speak, in C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. London: Macmillan, 271–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Spivak, G. (2003) Death of a Discipline. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Stoler, A. (1995) Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault’s History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Stoler, A. (2002) Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  99. Tadiar, N. X. (2004) Fantasy Production: Sexual Economies and Other Philippine Consequences. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Turcotte, H. M. (2011) Contextualizing Petro-Sexual Politics. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 36(3), 200–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Turcotte, H. M. (2014) Feminist Asylums and Acts of Dreaming. Feminist Theory, 15(2), 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Turner, T. and L. Brownhill (2004) Why Women Are at War with Chevron: Nigerian Subsistence Struggles against the International Oil Industry. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 39(1/2), 63–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner, T. and M. O. Oshare (1994) Women’s Uprising Against the Nigerian Oil Industry in the 1980s, in T. Turner (ed.) with B. Ferguson Arise Ye Might People!: Gender, Class and Race in Popular Struggles. Trenton: Africa World Press, 123–160.Google Scholar
  104. Turshen, M. and C. Twagiramariya (eds) (1998) What Women Do in Wartime: Gender and Conflict in Africa. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  105. Ukeje, C. (2001) Oil Communities and Political Violence: The Case of Ethnic Ijaws in Nigeria’s Delta Region. Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(4), 15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Volpp, L. (2006) Disappearing Acts: on Gendered Violence, Pathological Cultures, and Civil Society. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 121(5), 1631–1638.Google Scholar
  107. Von Kemedi, D. (2006) Fueling the Violence: Non-State Armed Actors (Militia, Cults, and Gangs) in the Niger Delta. Niger Delta Economies of Violence Working Papers, Berkeley and Washington, DC: University of California and the United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  108. wa Thion’go, N. (1986) Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. Portsmouth: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  109. Waller, M. and J. Rycenga (eds.) (2000) Frontline Feminisms: Women, War, and Resistance. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  110. Wallerstein, I. (2004) World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Weber, M. (1946) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Williams, R. (2010) The Divided World: Human Rights and Its Violence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yates, D. (2012) The Scramble for African Oil: Oppression, Corruption and War for Control of Africa’s Natural Resources. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Heather Turcotte 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Turcotte

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations