Gendered and Racialized Logics of Insecurity, Development and Intervention

  • Maryam Khalid


In her article ‘Gendering Insecurities, Informalization and “War Economies” ’, V. Spike Peterson identifies the too-often overlooked links between ‘the political’ and ‘the economic’, and outlines the connections between political violence and economic practices. Focusing on the uneven and contradictory logics and practices of neoliberalism, she illustrates how the local and global inequalities produced by neoliberal global restructuring create insecurities that lead to militarized conflict and war. Peterson’s discussion of gender, development, economic restructuring and security illustrates that expanding economic inequalities are inextricably linked to expanding political insecurities. In this chapter I explore these ideas with a specific focus on the ways in which racialized and gendered discourses of security and development enable the militarized conflicts that have contributed to the development of informal economies in post-war contexts. In doing so I provide an overview of how dominant discourses of development, democratization and security are interconnected along gendered and racialized lines, in order to show how development discourses fit into broader (historical and contemporary) gendered and racialized discourses of global politics (especially in terms of security and global order); how these discourses are militarized, thus enabling and perpetuating violence; and their gendered and racialized effects. I thereby draw on discourses of development, security and intervention related to what has been called, in these discourses, the ‘third’ or ‘developing world’, with a specific focus on the contemporary Middle East.


Middle East Informal Economy Military Intervention Development Discourse Global Politics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agathangelou, Anna M. and L. H. M. Ling (2004) Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11. International Studies Quarterly, 48(3), 517–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayers, Alison J. (2009) Imperial Liberties: Democratisation and Governance in the ‘new’ Imperial Order. Political Studies, 57(3), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacevich, Andrew J. (2002) American Empire: The Realities & Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bialasiewicz, Luiza, David Campbell, Stuart Elden, Stephen Graham, Alex Jeffrey and Alison J. Williams (2007) Performing Security: The Imaginative Geographies of Current US Strategy. Political Geography, 26(4), 423–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bush, George W. (2002) President Bush Discusses Freedom in Iraq and Middle East. 6 November 2003. (accessed 24 November 2015).Google Scholar
  6. Chacko, Priya (2004) Modernity, Orientalism and the Construction of International Relations, Proceedings of the Oceanic Conference on International Studies. Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  7. Duffield, Mark (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security. London, New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  8. Duffield, Mark (2002) Social Reconstruction as the Radicalization of Development: Aid as a Relation of Global Liberal Governance. Development and Change, 33(5), 1049–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duffield, Mark (2007a) Development, Security, and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge, Malden: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Duffield, Mark (2007b) Development, Territories, and People: Consolidating the External Sovereign Frontier. Alternatives 32(2), 225–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grovogui, Siba N. (2004) Postcolonial Criticism: International Reality and Modes of Enquiry, in Geeta Chowdhry and Sheila Nair (eds) Postcolonialism, and International Relations. London: Routledge, 33–55.Google Scholar
  12. Hellmich, Christina (2008) Creating the Ideology of Al Qaeda: From Hypocrites to Salafi– jihadists. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(2), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hobson, John M. (2004) The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hobson, John M. (2012) The Eurocentric Conception of World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ikenberry, G. John (2009) Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order. Perspectives on Politics, 7(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, Branwen (2006) Introduction: International Relations, Eurocentrism, and Imperialism, in B. Jones (ed.) Decolonizing International Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1–22.Google Scholar
  17. Khalid, Maryam (2011) Gender, Orientalism and Representations of the ‘Other’ in the ‘War on Terror’. Global Change, Peace & Security, 23(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khalid, Maryam (2014) Feminist Perspectives on Militarism and War: Critiques, Contradictions, and Collusions. Oxford Handbooks Online.
  19. Ling, L. H. M. (2004) Cultural Chauvinism and the Liberal International Order, in Geeta Chowdhry and Sheila Nair (eds) Postcolonialism, and International Relations. London: Routledge, 115–141.Google Scholar
  20. Ling, L. H. M. (2008) Borderlands: A Postcolonial-Feminist Alternative to Neoliberal Self/Other Relations. International Affairs Working Papers 3. New York: The New School.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Long, David (2006) Liberalism, Imperialism, and Empire. Studies in Political Economy, 78, 201–223.Google Scholar
  22. McCormack, Tara (2011) Human Security and the Separation of Security and Development. Conflict, Security & Development, 11(2).Google Scholar
  23. Monten, Jonathan (2005) The Roots of the Bush Doctrine: Power, Nationalism, and Democracy Promotion in U.S. Strategy. International Security, 29(4), 112–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nayak, Meghana (2006) Orientalism and ‘saving’ US State Identity After 9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 42–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peters, Cynthia (1992) Introduction, in Cynthia Peters (ed.) Collateral Damage: The ‘new world order’ at Home & Abroad. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  26. Peterson, V. Spike (2009) Gendering Informal Economies in Iraq, in N. Al-Ali and N. Pratt (eds) Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives. London: Zed Books, 35–64.Google Scholar
  27. Peterson, V. Spike (2013) Gendering Insecurities, Informalization and ‘war economies’, in Christina Ewig, Myra Marx Ferree and Aili Mari Tripp (eds.) Gender, Violence and Human Security: New Perspectives. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Reardon, Betty (1996) Sexism and the War System. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sadowski, Yahya (1993) The New Orientalism and the Democracy Debate. Middle East Report, 183, 14–21, 40.Google Scholar
  30. Said, Edward W. (1978 (2003)) Orientalism. Hammondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  31. Said, Edward W. (1997) Covering Islam. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  32. Samiei, Mohammed (2010) Neo-orientalism? The Relationship Between the West and Islam in Our Globalised World. Third World Quarterly, 31(7), 1145–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sardar, Ziauddin (1999) Orientalism. Buckingham, Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Saurin, Julian (2006) International Relations as the Imperial Illusion; or, the Need to Decolonize IR, in B. Jones (ed.) Decolonizing International Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 23–42.Google Scholar
  35. Shilliam, Robert (2008) What the Haitian Revolution Might Tell Us About Development, Security, and the Politics of Race. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 50(3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sjolander, Claire and Kathryn Trevenen (2010) One of the Boys? Gender Disorder in Times of Crisis. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 12(2), 158–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Springer, Simon (2011) Violence Sits in Places? Cultural Practice, Neoliberal Rationalism, and Virulent Imaginative Geographies. Political Geography, 30(2), 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Takacs, Stacy (2005) Jessica Lynch and the Regeneration of American Identity and Power post-9/11. Feminist Media Studies, 5(3), 297–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tschirgi, Neclâ (2006) Security and Development Policies: Untangling the Relationship’, in Stephan Klingebiel (ed.) New Interfaces Between Security and Development: Changing Concepts and Approaches. Bonn: German Development Institute, 39–68.Google Scholar
  40. Tuastad, Dag (2004) Neo-orientalism and the New Barbarism Thesis: Aspects of Symbolic Violence in the Middle East Conflict. Third World Quarterly, 24, 591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Turner, Bryan (1994) Orientalism, Postmodernism and Globalism. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. White House (2002) The National Security Strategy of the United States. (accessed 24 November 2015).Google Scholar
  43. Wilson, Kalpana (2011) ‘Race’, Gender and Neoliberalism: Changing Visual Representations in Development. Third World Quarterly, 32(2), 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Maryam Khalid 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Khalid

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations