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Delivering the Message: Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, and Crisis Management

  • Joanne Scheff Bernstein

Abstract

Current marketing practice is simultaneously exemplified by the seemingly paradoxical extreme goals of mass branding and one-to-one relationship marketing. The marketing communications mix, also called the promotion mix, consists of four major tools: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations. Each tool has its own unique characteristics and costs. Crisis management is also a critical function and managers must be adept at handling issues as they arise, or better yet, anticipate them before they become problematic.

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Notes

  1. 1.
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    Adapted from E. G. Schreiber, “Promoting the Performing Arts,” and “Rhoda Weiss’s Public Relations Tips for Nonprofit Organizations,” in Media Resource Guide, 5th ed. (Los Angeles: Foundation for American Communication, 1987), 39–41; and Dianne Bissell, Marketing Promotions Guide (Chicago: League of Chicago Theatres, 1985), 51–55.Google Scholar
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    Dianne Bisseil, Marketing Promotions Guide (Chicago: League of Chicago Theatres, 1985), 51–55.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Joanne Scheff Bernstein 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne Scheff Bernstein

There are no affiliations available

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