Delivering the Message: Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, and Crisis Management
Current marketing practice is simultaneously exemplified by the seemingly paradoxical extreme goals of mass branding and one-to-one relationship marketing. The marketing communications mix, also called the promotion mix, consists of four major tools: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations. Each tool has its own unique characteristics and costs. Crisis management is also a critical function and managers must be adept at handling issues as they arise, or better yet, anticipate them before they become problematic.
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