In the early phase of transition that started with the 1990s, Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) have pursued far-reaching vertical and individual industrial policy with the focus on privatization and restructuring of traditional industries. Also foreign investment from the West and facilitation of the development of a market economy involved massive injections of state support. With their accession to the European Union (EU), levels and forms of State aid came under critical review by the European Commission’s DG Competition. Findings suggest that once having entered the EU as full members, the new members from the East appear to have been converging into rather stringent competition cultures.


European Union Competition Policy Shipbuilding Industry European Union Accession European Union Competition Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Jens Hölscher 2015

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  • Jens Hölscher

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