Disoriented Doctors

  • Yorick Smaal
Chapter
Part of the Genders and Sexualities in History book series (GSX)

Abstract

On a Friday night in late August 1943 Constable Clifford and Detective-Constable Wilhelm Raetz were on duty in Rockhampton, a coastal port town halfway up Queensland’s coast. They were patrolling the beat on foot, keeping a lookout for wartime mischief and misbehaviour as they walked through the streets. Just before 11pm, as they made their way down an unlit laneway, Raetz heard two male voices echo in the night air. He immediately flashed his torch in the direction of the conversation — the timing and location suggested something was amiss. The light revealed a 23-year-old single labourer, William, and a 16-year-old youth in ‘certain attitudes’ in the grounds of the nearby Salvation Army Citadel.1 The police rushed to the scene as the man and adolescent fumbled to rearrange their clothes. When they arrived at the Citadel, ‘Raetz asked the accused [William] how long the practice had been going on. The accused asked “Why?” and Raetz replied he had asked the question because he had seen the accused committing an unnatural offence’.2 The officers arrested the suspects soon after.

Keywords

Depression Europe Arena Cardiazol 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    William appears as Walter in my published account of this affair appearing in the Journal of the History of Sexuality, although his name has been changed here to avoid confusion: Yorick Smaal, ‘“It is One of Those Things That Nobody Can Explain”: Medicine, Homosexuality and the Australian Criminal Courts during World War II’, Journal of the History of Sexuality, 22, 3 (2013), 501–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 16.
    Estelle Freedman, ‘“Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath’, Journal of American History, 74, 1 (1987), 83–106;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Philip Jenkins, Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 80–90.Google Scholar
  4. 24.
    Home Office, Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Secretary of State for Scotland by Command of Her Majesty September 1957 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1968), 11.Google Scholar
  5. 29.
    J. L. Moir, ‘Some Medical Aspects of Crime and of the Criminal Law and the Need for Chairs of Criminology at Our Universities and for Consultation Centres in Our Towns’, Medico-Legal and Criminological Review, VIII, II (April 1940), 121.Google Scholar
  6. 30.
    Bulletin (Sydney), 10 November 1927, 5. This article had wide ambit, unlike material circulated in medical journals. In her history of the Bulletin, Patricia Rolfe estimates that the paper’s circulation figures at the end of the 1920s was somewhere around 55,000 for a national population of approximately 6,500,000. Based on this figure alone (which is inflated if we take children into account), almost one in every 120 people were potentially exposed to these ideas. The number was likely to be much higher if we consider a consumption rate of more than one person to each paper. Patricia Rolfe, The Journalistic Javelin: An Illustrated History of the Bulletin (Sydney: Wildcat, 1979), 259.Google Scholar
  7. 34.
    Regina Kunzel, Criminal Intimacy: Prison and the Uneven History of Modern American Sexuality (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2010), 51–54.Google Scholar
  8. 38.
    Anon., ‘Homosexuality’, 175–6. On mixed modelling also see Josephine Hinrichsen, ‘The Importance of a Knowledge of Sexual Habits in the Diagnosis and Control of Venereal Diseases, With Special Reference to Homosexual Behaviour’, Urological and Cutaneous Review, 48 (1944), 478;Google Scholar
  9. F. G. MacDonald, ‘The Problem of the Homosexual with Venereal Disease’, British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 25 (1949), 13; The Times (London), 8 July 1937, 8; Moir, ‘Some Medical Aspects of Crime’, 121.Google Scholar
  10. 39.
    Chris Brickell, ‘Sex Instruction and the Construction of Homosexuality in New Zealand, 1920–1965’, Sex Education, 5, 2 (2005), 119–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 40.
    Graham Robb, Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Norton, 2004), 58.Google Scholar
  12. 45.
    Edmund Bergler, ‘The Myth of a New National Disease: Homosexuality and the Kinsey Report’, Psychiatric Quarterly, 22 (January 1948): 73; NARA, RG52, Records of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Entry 15-B, Headquarters Records Correspondence Files, 1842–1951, Box 148, General Correspondence 1942–46, Clements. C. Fry MD and Edna G. Rostow, ‘Reflections on Some Aspects of Homosexuality as it Relates to the Military’, 17.Google Scholar
  13. 46.
    Gary Allan Foster, ‘Male Rape and the Government of Bodies: An Unnatural History of the Present’ (PhD Thesis, University of Queensland, 2005), 192.Google Scholar
  14. 47.
    Sean Brady, Masculinity and Male Homosexuality in Britain, 1861–1913 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005); On Europe see Robb, Strangers, 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 48.
    Stephen Garton, Medicine and Madness: A Social History of Insanity in New South Wales 1880–1940 (Sydney: New South Wales University Press, 1988), 38–41, 55, 68–69, 84;Google Scholar
  16. Joy Damousi, Freud in the Antipodes: A Cultural History of Psychoanalysis in Australia (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2005), 8, 27–29, 64–69.Google Scholar
  17. 49.
    Sydney Smith, Forensic Medicine: A Textbook for Students and Practitioners (London: J. A. Churchill, 1943), 313;Google Scholar
  18. Keith Simpson, Forensic Medicine (London: Edward Arnold, 1947), 189;Google Scholar
  19. Sydney Smith, Taylor’s Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, 9th ed., vol. 2 (London: J. A. Churchill, 1934), 275;Google Scholar
  20. Sydney Smith, Taylor’s Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, 10th ed., vol. 2 (London: J. A. Churchill, 1948), 213.Google Scholar
  21. 69.
    Although assessments of ‘mental age’ (that is, intelligence) are also evident in American studies; Lewis H. Loeser, ‘The Sexual Psychopath in the Military Service’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 102 (1945), 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 86.
    Charles Anderson, ‘On Certain Conscious and Unconscious Homosexual Responses to Warfare’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 20, 1, part 1 (1944), 173.Google Scholar
  23. 93.
    Clive Moore, Sunshine and Rainbows: The Development of Gay and Lesbian Culture in Queensland (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 2001), 81–84.Google Scholar
  24. On Dr Storer see Wayne Murdoch, ‘Dr Storer’, in Secret Histories of Queer Melbourne, eds Graham Willett, Wayne Murdoch and Daniel Marshall (Melbourne: ALGA, 2011), 49–51.Google Scholar
  25. 98.
    William A. Isdale, ‘The Rise of Psychiatry and its Establishment in Queensland’, Royal Historical Society of Queensland Journal, XIV, 12 (1992), 501.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Yorick Smaal 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yorick Smaal
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith UniversityAustralia

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