Cross-border Turkic and Iranian Language Retention in the West and East Slavic Lands and Beyond: A Tentative Classification

  • Paul Wexler


Speakers of Aramaic, Indo-Iranian, Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Mongolic, and possibly Indic languages migrated into Europe between the third millennium BCE and 1300 CE; see, for instance, Syrians, Jews;1 Sarmatians, Scythians, Jas, Jazygians, Chvalis, Alans, Avars, Huns, Roma (on their possible Iranian origins, see below), Cumans, Khazars, Kovars, Pechenegs, proto-Bulgarians, Hungarians, Mongolians, respectively. Apart from Hungarians and Turkic Karaites (at least until recently), most migratory groups eventually assimilated to the local majority ethnic groups and adopted their languages.


Jewish Community Ninth Century Silk Road Slavic Language Language Shift 
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