Language and Migration

  • Alícia Adserà
  • Mariola Pytliková


Language proficiency is extremely important for international migrants. Better language proficiency means easier assimilation in the host country and greater returns to human capital as well as better job opportunities and job matches, among other things. In addition language skills surely influence a number of non-economic outcomes such as social integration, the size of the migrant’s social network, his or her political participation and civic engagement, as well as educational attainment, health outcomes and family life. Familiarity with the destination language helps to minimize migration costs (both the direct out-of-pocket expenses and the psychological costs of leaving the home country) and serves as an informational channel to learn about other determinants of migration.


Labour Market Human Capital Ordinary Little Square Host Country Language Skill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A. Adserà and B. Chiswick (2007) ‘Are There Gender Differences in Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes Across European Countries?’, Journal of Population Economics, 20, 495–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A. Adserà and A. Ferrer (2014a) ‘Factors Influencing the Fertility Choices of Child Immigrants in Canada’, Population Studies, 68, 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. A. Adserà and A. Ferrer (2014b) ‘The Effect of Linguistic Proximity on the Occupational Assimilation of Immigrant Men’, CLSRN Working Paper 144.Google Scholar
  4. A. Adserà and A. Ferrer (2014c) ‘The Myth of Immigrant Women as Secondary Workers: Evidence from Canada’, American Economic Review, 104, 360–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A. Adserà and M. Pytliková (2015) ‘The Role of Languages in Shaping International Migration’, Economic Journal, 586, 49–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. R. Akresh, P. Verwimp and T. Bundervoet (2007) ‘Civil War, Crop Failure, and Child Stunting in Rwanda’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4208.Google Scholar
  7. J. Andersson and L. Nekby (2012) ‘Intensive Coaching of New Immigrants: An Evaluation Based on Random Program Assignment’, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 114, 575–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. A. Aydemir (2011) ‘Immigrant Selection and Short-Term Labor Market Outcomes by Visa Category’, Journal of Population Economics, 24, 451–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. M. Azam, A. Chin and N. Prakash (2013) ‘The Returns to English-language Skills in India’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 61, 335–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. T. Bauer, G. Epstein and I. Gang (2005) ‘Enclaves, Language, and the Location Choice of Migrants’, Journal of Population Economics, 18, 649–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. J. Beckhusen, F. Raymond, T. de Graaff, J. Poot and B. Waldorf (2013) ‘Living and Working in Ethnic Enclaves: Language Proficiency of Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan Areas’, Papers in Regional Science, 92, 305–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. M. Beine, F. cquier and C. Ozden (2011) ‘Diasporas’, Journal of Development Economics, 95, 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M. Beine and S. Salomone (2013) ‘Network Effect in International Migration: Does Education Matter more than Gender?’, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 115, 354–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. M. Belot and S. Ederveen (2012) ‘Cultural and Institutional Barriers in Migration between OECD Countries’, Journal of Population Economics, 25, 1077–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. M. Belot and T. Hatton (2012) ‘Skill Selection and Immigration in OECD countries’, Scandinavian Journal of Economic, 114, 681–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. M. Bertrand, M. Luttmer and S. Mullainathan (2000) ‘Network Effects and Welfare Cultures’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 1019–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. H. Bleakley and A. Chin (2004) ‘Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 84, 481–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. H. Bleakley and A. Chin (2008) ‘The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital among Immigrants’, Journal of Human Resources, 43, 267–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. H. Bleakley and A. Chin (2010) ‘Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation among US Immigrants’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2, 165–192.Google Scholar
  20. M. Boyd (2009) ‘Language at Work: The Impact of Linguistic Enclaves on Immigrant Economic Integration’, Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network Working Paper No. 41.Google Scholar
  21. S. Budría and P. Swedberg (2012) ‘The Impact of Language Proficiency on Immigrants’ Earnings in Spain’, IZA Discussion Paper No. 6957.Google Scholar
  22. D. Casale and D. Posel (2011) ‘English Language Proficiency and Earnings in a Developing Country: The Case of South Africa’, The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40, 385–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. T. Casey and C. Dustmann (2008) ‘Intergenerational Transmission of Language Capital and Economic Outcomes’, Journal of Human Resources, 43, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. B. Chiswick (1991) ‘Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants’, Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. B. Chiswick (1998) ‘Hebrew Language Usage: Determinants and Effects on Earnings Among Immigrants in Israel’, Journal of Population Economics, 11(2), 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. B. Chiswick (1999) ‘Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected?’, American Economic Review, 89, 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. B. Chiswick (2008) ‘The Economics of Language: An Introduction and Overview’, IZA Working Paper 3568.Google Scholar
  28. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (1994) ‘The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada’, Economics of Education Review, 22, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (1995) ‘The Endogeneity Between Language and Earnings: International Analyses’, Journal of Labor Economics, 13, 246–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (1996) ‘Ethnic Networks and Language Proficiency among Immigrants’, Journal of Population Economics, 9, 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (1998) ‘English Language Fluency among Immigrants in the United States’, Research in Labor Economics, 17, 151–200.Google Scholar
  32. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2001) ‘A Model of Destination-Language Acquisition: Application to Male Immigrants in Canada’, Demography, 38, 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2002) ‘Immigrant Earnings: Language Skills, Linguistic Concentrations and the Business Cycle’, Journal of Population Economics, 15, 31–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2005) ‘Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment?’, City and Community, 4, 5–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2006) ‘Language Skills and Immigrant Adjustment: The Role of Immigration Policy’ In D. Cobb-Clark, R. Henderson and Siew-Ean Khar (eds) Public Policy and Immigrant Settlement (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), pp. 121–148.Google Scholar
  36. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2007) ‘Computer Usage, Destination Language Proficiency and the Earnings of Natives and Immigrants’, Review of the Economics of the Household, 5, 129–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. B. Chiswick and P.W. Miller (2008) ‘Why Is Payoff to Schooling Smaller for Immigrants?’, Labour Economics, 15, 1317–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. B. Chiswick and C. Houseworth (2011) ‘Ethnic Intermarriage among Immigrants: Human Capital and Assortative Mating’, Review of Economics of the Household, 9, 149–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. B. Chiswick and P. Miller (2014) ‘International Migration and the Economics of Language’ In B. Chiswick and P. Miller (eds) Handbook on the Economics of International Migration Volume 1A (Amsterdam: North-Holland), pp. 211–270.Google Scholar
  40. X. Clark, T. Hatton and J. Williamson (2007) ‘Explaining U.S. Immigration, 1971–1998’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89, 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. A. Clarke and I. Isphording (2015) ‘Language Barriers in Immigrant Health Production’, IZA Discussion Paper 8846.Google Scholar
  42. J. Clausen, E. Heinesen, H. Hummelgaard, L. Husted and M. Rosholm (2009) ‘The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants: Evidence from Denmark’, Labour Economics, 16, 409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. D. Cobb-Clark, M. Connolly and C. Worswick (2005) ‘Post-Migration Investments in Education and Job Search: A Family Perspective’, Journal of Population Economics, 18, 663–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. S. Cohen-Goldner and Z. Eckstein (2008) ‘Labor Mobility of Immigrants: Training, Experience, Language and Opportunities’, International Economic Review, 49, 837–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. S. Cohen-Goldner and Z. Eckstein (2010) ‘Estimating the Return to Training and Occupational Experience: The Case of Female Immigrants’, Journal of Econometrics, 156, 86–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. A. Damm (2009) ‘Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence’, Journal of Labor Economics, 27, 281–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. A. Dávila and M. Mora (2001) ‘The Marital Status of Recent Mexican Immigrants in the United States in 1980 and 1990’, International Migration Review, 35, 506–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. A. Di Paolo and J.L. Raymond (2012) ‘Language Knowledge and Earnings in Catalonia’, Journal of Applied Economics, 15(1), 89–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. A. Di Paolo and A. Tansel (2015) ‘Returns to Foreign Language Skills in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey’, The Journal of Development Studies, 51, 407–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. M. Dryer and M. Haspelmath (eds) (2013) The World Atlas of Language Structures Online (Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology).Google Scholar
  51. B. Duncan and S. Trejo (2007) ‘Ethnic Identification, Intermarriage, and Unmeasured Progress by Mexican Americans’ In G. Borjas (ed.) Mexican Immigration to the United States (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) 229–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. C. Dustmann (1993) ‘Earnings Adjustment of Temporary Migrants’, Journal of Population Economics, 6, 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. C. Dustmann (1994) ‘Speaking Fluency, Writing Fluency and Earnings of Migrants’, Journal of Population Economics, 7, 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. C. Dustmann (1999) ‘Temporary Migration, Human Capital, and Language Fluency of Migrants’, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 10, 297–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. C. Dustmann and F. Fabbri (2003) ‘Language Proficiency and Labour Market Performance of Immigrants in the UK’, Economic Journal, 113, 695–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. C. Dustmann and J. Gorlach (2015) ‘The Economics of Temporary Migrations’, Journal of Economic Literature, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  57. C. Dustmann and A. van Soest (2001) ‘Language Fluency and Earnings: Estimation with Misclassified Language Indicators’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 83, 663–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. C. Dustmann and A. van Soest (2002) ‘Language and the Earnings of Immigrants’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55, 473–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. I. Dyen, J. Kruskal and P. Black (1992) ‘An Indo-European Classification: A Lexicostatistical Experiment’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 82, iii–iv, 1–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. P. Edin, P. Fredriksson and O. Åslund (2003) ‘Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants: Evidence from a Natural Experiment’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 329–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. J. Espenshade and H. Fu (1997) ‘An Analysis of English-language Proficiency among U.S. Immigrants’, American Sociological Review, 62, 288–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. European Commission (2006) ‘Special Eurobarometer on “Europeans and their languages”’, (accessed: 1 February 2012).
  63. R. Fernandez and A. Fogli (2006) ‘Fertility: The Role of Culture and Family Experience’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 4, 552–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. E. Funkhouser and F. Ramos (1993) ‘The Choice of Migration Destination: Dominican and Cuban Americans to the Mainland United States and Puerto Rico’, International Migration Review, 27, 537–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. A. Georgiadis and A. Manning (2011) ‘Change and Continuity among Minority Communities in Britain’, Journal of Population Economics, 24, 541–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. V. Ginsburgh and J. Prieto-Rodriguez (2011) ‘Returns to Foreign Languages of Native Workers in the EU’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 64, 599–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. C. Gorinas and M. Pytliková (2016) ‘Do Natives’ Attitudes Influence International Migration?’, International Migration Review, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  68. J. Grogger and G. Hanson (2011) ‘Income Maximization and the Selection and Sorting of International Migrants’, Journal of Development Economics, 95, 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. J. Grogger and S. Trejo (2002) ‘Falling Behind or Moving Up? The Intergenerational Progress of California’s Mexican-Origin Population’, Public Policy Institute of California.Google Scholar
  70. E. Heinesen, L. Husted and M. Rosholm (2013) ‘The Effects of Active Labour Market Policies for Immigrants Receiving Social Assistance in Denmark’, IZA Journal of Migration, doi:10.1186/2193-9039-2-15.Google Scholar
  71. L. Hong and S. Page (2004) ‘Groups of Diverse Problem Solvers Can Outperform Groups of High-Ability Problem Solvers’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 16385–16389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. F. Hou (2005) ‘The Initial Destinations and Redistribution of Canada’s Major Immigrant Groups: Changes over the Past Two Decades’, Statistics Canada Research, Catalogue No. 11F0019MIE-No. 254.Google Scholar
  73. I. Isphording (2013) ‘Returns to Local and Foreign Language Skills’, Labour, 27, 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. I. Isphording (2014) ‘Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin: Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores’, Economics Letters, 123, 236–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. I. Isphording and S. Otten (2013) ‘The Costs of Babylon: Linguistic Distance in Applied Economics’, Review of International Economics, 21, 354–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. I. Isphording and S. Otten (2014) ‘Linguistic Barriers in the Destination Language Acquisition of Immigrants’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 105, 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. M. Kahanec, M. Pytliková and K. Zimmermann (2016) ‘The Free Movement of Workers in an Enlarged European Union: Institutional Underpinnings of Economic Adjustment’ (forthcoming) In M. Kahanec and K. Zimmermann (eds) Labor Migration, EU Enlargement, and the Great Recession (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), ISBN 978-3-662-45320-9.Google Scholar
  78. J. Kahn (1988) ‘Immigrant Selectivity and Fertility Adaptation in the United States’, Social Forces, 67, 108–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. W. Kerr and W. Lincoln (2010) ‘The Supply Side of Innovations: H-1B Visa Reforms and U.S. Ethnic Invention’, Journal of Labor Economics, 28, 473–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. K. Keuntae and J. Cohen (2010) ‘Determinants of International Migration Flows to and from Industrialized Countries: A Panel Data Approach Beyond Gravity’, International Migration Review, 44, 899–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. S. Kossoudji (1988) ‘The Impact of English Language Ability on the Labor Market Opportunities of Asian and Hispanic Immigrant Men’, Journal of Labor Economics, 6, 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. K. Lang and E. Siniver (2009) ‘The Return to English in a Non-English Speaking Country: Russian Immigrants and Native Israelis in Israel’, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 9(1), 1935–1682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. E. Lazear (1999) ‘Globalisation and the Market for Team-Mates’, The Economic Journal, 109, 15–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. E. P. Lazear (2007) ‘Mexican assimilation in the United States’ In G. J. Borjas (ed.) Mexican Immigration to the United States (Chicago: University Press/NBER Cambridge, MA), pp. 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. A. Leon (2003) ‘Does Ethnic Capital Matter? Identifying Peer Effects in the Inter-generational Transmission of Ethnic Differentials’, MIT Department of Economics, Manuscript.Google Scholar
  86. D. Leslie and J. Lindley (2001) ‘The Impact of Language Ability on Employment and Earnings of Britain’s Ethnic Communities’, Economica, 68, 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. V. Levenshtein (1966) ‘Binary Codes Capable of Correcting Deletions, Insertions, and Reversals’, Cybernetics and Control Theory, 10, 707–710.Google Scholar
  88. J. Levinsohn (2007) ‘Globalization and the Returns to Speaking English in South Africa’ In A. Harrison (ed.) Globalization and Poverty (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press), pp. 629–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. J. Lindley (2002) ‘The English Language Fluency and Earnings of Ethnic Minorities in Britain’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 49, 467–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. D. Massey and K. Espinosa (1997) ‘What’s Driving Mexico U.S. Migration? A Theoretical, Empirical, and Policy Analysis’, American Journal of Sociology, 102, 939–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. R. Mayberry, E. Lock and H. Kazmi (2001) ‘Linguistic Ability and Early Language Exposure’, Nature, 417, 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. A. Mayda (2010) ‘International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of the Determinants of Bilateral Flows’, Journal of Population Economics, 23, 1249–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. J. McDonald (2004) ‘Toronto and Vancouver Bound: The Location Choice of New Canadian Immigrants’, Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13, 85–101.Google Scholar
  94. D. McKenzie and H. Rapoport (2010) ‘Self-selection Patterns in Mexico-U.S. Migration: The Role of Migration Networks’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92, 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. J. Melitz and F. Toubal (2014) ‘Native Language, Spoken Language, Translation and Trade’, Journal of International Economics, 93, 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. X. Meng and R. Gregory (2005) ‘Intermarriage and the Economic Assimilation of Immigrants’, Journal of Labor Economics, 23, 135–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. A. Miranda and Y. Zhu (2013) ‘English Deficiency and the Native-Immigrant Wage Gap’, Economics Letters, 118, 38–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. K. Munshi (2003) ‘Networks in the Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants in the US Labor Market’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 549–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. F. Ortega and G. Peri (2009) ‘The Causes and Effects of International Migrations: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980–2005’, NBER Working Paper 14833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. F. Ortega and G. Peri (2013) ‘The Effect of Income and Immigration Policies on International Migrations’, Migration Studies, 1, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. F. Ortega and G. Peri (2015) ‘Migration, Trade and Income’, Journal of International Economics, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  102. E. Osborne (2000) ‘The Deceptively Simple Economics of Workplace Diversity’, Journal of Labor Research, 21, 463–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. J. Palmer and M. Pytliková (2015) ‘Labor Market Laws and Intra-European Migration: The Role of the State in Shaping Destination Choices’, European Journal of Population, 31, 127–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. P. Parrotta, D. Pozzoli and M. Pytliková (2014a) ‘Does Labour Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?’, European Economic Review, 66, 144–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. P. Parrotta, D. Pozzoli and M. Pytliková (2014b) ‘The Nexus Between Labor Diversity and Firm’s Innovation’, Journal of Population Economics, 27, 303–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. P. Pedersen, M. Pytliková and N. Smith (2006) ‘Migration into OECD Countries, 1990–2000’ In C. Parsons and T. Smeeding (eds) Immigration and the Transformation of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 43–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. P. Pedersen, M. Pytliková and N. Smith (2008) ‘Selection and Network Effects: Migration Flows into OECD Countries, 1990–2000’, European Economic Review, 52, 1160–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. A. Portes and L. Jensen (1989) ‘The Enclave and the Entrants: Patterns of Ethnic Enterprise in Miami before and after Mariel’, American Sociological Review, 54, 929–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. D. Rooth and J. Saarela (2007) ‘Native Language and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes: An Alternative Approach to Measuring the Returns to Language Skills’, Journal of International Migration and Integration, 8, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Norman B. Ryder (1973) ‘A Critique of the National Fertility Study’, Demography 10, 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. A. Saiz and E. Zoido (2005) ‘Listening to What the World Says: Bilingualism and Earnings in the United States’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 87, 523–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. M. Sarvimäki and K. Hämäläinen (2015) ‘Integrating Immigrants: The Impact of Restructuring ALMP’, Journal of Labor Economics, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  113. J. Schaafsma and A. Sweetman (2001) ‘Immigrant Earnings: Age at Immigration Matters’ Canadian Journal of Economics, 34, 1066–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. M. Shields and S. Wheatley Price (2002) ‘The English Language Fluency and Occupational Success of Ethnic Minority Immigrant Men Living in English Metropolitan Areas’, Journal of Population Economics, 15, 137–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. A. M. Sorenson (1988) ‘The Fertility and Language Characteristics of Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic Husbands and Wives’, The Sociological Quarterly, 29, 111–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. G. Stevens (1992) ‘The Social and Demographic Context of Language Use in the United States’, American Sociological Review, 57, 171–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. G. Stevens (1999) ‘Age at Immigration and Second Language Proficiency among Foreign-Born Adults: Age at Immigration and Second Language Proficiency among Foreign-Born Adults’, Language in Society, 28, 555–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. G. Stevens and G. Swicegood (1987) ‘The Linguistic Context of Ethnic Endogamy-Born Adults: Age at Immigration and Second Language Proficiency among Foreign-Born Adults’, American Sociological Association, 2, 73–82.Google Scholar
  119. T. Stöhr (2015) ‘The Returns to Occupational Foreign Language Use: Evidence from Germany’, Labour Economics, 32, 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. G. Swicegood, F. Bean, E. Herphey Stephen and W. Opitz (1988) ‘Language Usage and Fertility in the Mexican-Origin Population of the United States’, Demography, 25, 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. O. Toomet (2011) ‘Learn English, Not the Local Language! Ethnic Russians in the Baltic States’, American Economic Review, 101, 526–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. M. Toussaint-Comeau and S. Rhine (2004) ‘Tenure Choice with Location Selection: The Case of Hispanic Neighborhoods in Chicago’, Contemporary Economic Policy, 22, 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. M. White and J. Glick (2009) Achieving Anew: How New Immigrants Do in American Schools, Jobs and Neighborhoods (New York: Russel Sage Foundation).Google Scholar
  124. D. Williams (2011) ‘The Economic Returns to Multiple Language Usage in Western Europe’, International Journal of Manpower, 32, 372–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Y. Yao and J. van Ours (2015) ‘Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands’, Labour Economics, 34, 76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Alícia Adserà and Mariola Pytliková 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alícia Adserà
  • Mariola Pytliková

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations