Choosing Voters: Redistricting and Re-Apportionment

  • Martha E. Kropf
Part of the Elections, Voting, Technology book series (EVT)


If there is any electoral institution in the United States where the rules affect outcomes, it is in redistricting and reapportionment, yet it is one of the least understood parts of the electoral institution. The formal rules created in every state in the nation (each of the 50 states create districts in varying ways with varying laws) also affect citizen participation in electoral decisions. Citizen votes translate into public policy via representation at the federal, state, and local levels. Within states, congress members represent approximately equal numbers of individuals, but not between states.1 Within states, state houses and senates are typically divided into equally populated geographic districts.


American National Election Study Congressional District Electoral Institution Minority Representative Citizen Vote 
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  1. 5.
    See for example Pitkin, Hannah Fenichel. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Tokaji, Daniel P. 2008. “Representation and Raceblindness: The Story of Shaw v. Reno.” Chapter 14 in Rachel F. Moran and Devon W. Carbado (eds.), Race Law Stories. New York: Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  3. 16.
    For a longer view, see Altman, Micah. 1998. “Traditional Districting Principles: Judicial Myths vs. Reality.” Social Science History 22(2): 159–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha E. Kropf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA

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