Social Representations and the Politics of Participation

  • Caroline Howarth
  • Eleni Andreouli
  • Shose Kessi
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Psychology Series book series (PSPP)


Recent work has called for the integration of different perspectives into the field of political psychology (Haste, 2012). This chapter suggests that one possible direction that such efforts can take is studying the role that social representations theory (SRT) can play in understanding political participation and social change. Social representations are systems of commonsense knowledge and social practice; they provide the lens through which to view and create social and political realities, mediate people’s relations with these sociopolitical worlds and defend cultural and political identities. Social representations are therefore key for conceptualising participation as the activity that locates individuals and social groups in their sociopolitical world. Political participation is generally seen as conditional to membership of sociopolitical groups and therefore is often linked to citizenship. To be a citizen of a society or a member of any social group one has to participate as such. Often political participation is defined as the ability to communicate one’s views to the political elite or to the political establishment (Uhlaner, 2001), or simply explicit involvement in politics and electoral processes (Milbrath, 1965). However, following scholars on ideology (Eagleton, 1991; Thompson, 1990) and social knowledge (Jovchelovitch, 2007), we extend our understanding of political participation to all social relations and also develop a more agentic model where individuals and groups construct, develop and resist their own views, ideas and beliefs. We thus adopt a broader approach to participation in comparison to other political-psychological approaches, such as personality approaches (e.g. Mondak and Halperin, 2008) and cognitive approaches or, more recently, neuropsychological approaches (Hatemi and McDermott, 2012). We move away from a focus on the individual’s political behaviour and its antecedents and outline an approach that focuses on the interaction between psychological and political phenomena (Deutsch and Kinnvall, 2002) through examining the politics of social knowledge.


Social Relation Social Knowledge Political Participation Immigrant Youth Intergroup Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abric, J. C. (1993) ‘Central system, peripheral system: Their functions and roles in the dynamic of social representations’. Papers on Social Representations, 2: 75–78.Google Scholar
  2. Advisory Group on Citizenship (1998) Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools. London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, L. and Sonn, C. C. (2010) ‘Constructing identity as a second generation Cypriot Turkish in Australia: The multi hyphenated other’, Culture and Psychology 16(3): 416–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (Revised ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Andreouli, E. (2013) ‘Identity and acculturation: The case of naturalised citizens in Britain’. Culture & Psychology, 19(2): 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreouli, E. and Howarth, C. (2012) ‘National identity, citizenship and immigration: Putting identity in context’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 43(3): 361–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes, R., Auburn, T. and Lea, S. (2004) ‘Citizenship in practice’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 43: 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batel, S. and Castro, P. (2009) ‘A social representations approach to the communication between different spheres: An analysis of the impacts of two discursive formats’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 39(4): 415–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauer, M. W. and Gaskell, G. (1999) ‘Towards a paradigm for research on social representations’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 29(2): 163–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer, M. W. and Gaskell, G. (2008) ‘Social representations theory: A progressive research programme for social psychology’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4): 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, P. L. and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  12. Billig, M. (1987) Arguing and Thinking: A Rhetorical Approach to Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Billig, M. (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Blankenship, K. M., Biradavolu, M. R., Jena, A. and George, A. (2010) ‘Challenging the stigmatization of female sex workers through a community-led structural intervention: Learning from a case study of a female sex worker intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India’. Aids Care, 22 (Supplement 2): 1629–1636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brah, A. and Phoenix, A. (2004) ‘Ain’t I a woman? Revisiting intersectionality’. Journal of International Women Studies, 5(3): 75–86.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, C. (2003) Letting Them Die: Why HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes Fail. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, C. and Cornish, F. (2010) ‘Towards a “fourth generation” of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: Creating contexts for effective community mobilization’. Aids Care, 22 (Supplement 2): 1569–1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Campbell, C., Cornish, F. and Skovdal, M. (2012) ‘Local pain, global prescriptions? Using scale to analyse the globalization of the HIV/AIDS Response’. Health & Place, 18(3): 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, C. and Jovchelovitch, S. (2000) ‘Health, community, and development: Towards a social psychology of participation’. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 10: 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castro, P. (2012) ‘Legal innovation for social change: Exploring change and resistance to different types of sustainability laws’. Political Psychology, 33(1): 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castro, P. and Batel, S. (2008) ‘Social representation, change and resistance: On the difficulties of generalizing new norms’. Culture & Psychology, 14(4): 477–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caughy, M. O., O’Campo, P. J. and Muntaner, C. (2003) ‘When being alone might be better: Neighbourhood poverty, social capital, and child mental health’. Social Science & Medicine, 57: 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chambers, R. (2004) ‘Ideas for Development: Reflecting Forwards’. IDS Working Paper 238.Google Scholar
  24. Chryssochoou, X. (2009) ‘Strategies of Immigrants’ Inclusion: The Views of Greeks, of Voreioipirotes and of Albanians in Athens’. In: Pavlou, M. and Skoulariki, A. eds. Migrants and Minorities: Discourses and Politics. Athens: Vivliorama (In Greek).Google Scholar
  25. Chryssochoou, X. and Lyons, E. (2011) ‘Perceptions of (In)compatibility between Identities and Participation in the National Polity of People Belonging to Ethnic Minorities’. In: Assaad, E., Azzi, X. C., Klandermans, B. and Simon, B. eds. Identity and Participation in Culturally Diverse Societies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  26. Deutsch, M. and Kinnvall, C. (2002) ‘What Is Political Psychology?’ In: Monroe, K. R. ed. Political Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Dixon, J., Levine, M., Reicher, S. and Durrheim, K. (2012) ‘Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?’ Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6): 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dogra, N. (2012) Representations of Global Poverty: Aid, Development and International NGOs. New York: I. B. Taurus.Google Scholar
  29. Durkheim, E. (1898) ‘Representations indivuelles et representations collectives’. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, 6: 273–302.Google Scholar
  30. Duveen, G. (2002) ‘Construction, belief, doubt’. Psychologie & Société, 5: 139–155.Google Scholar
  31. Duveen, G. (2008) ‘Social actors and social groups: A return to heterogeneity in social psychology’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4): 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duveen, G. and Lloyd, B. (1986) ‘The significance of social identities’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eagleton, T. (1991) Ideology: An Introduction. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  34. Elcheroth, G., Doise, W. and Reicher, S. (2011) ‘On the knowledge of politics and the politics of knowledge: How a social representations approach helps us rethink the subject of political psychology’. Political Psychology, 32(5): 729–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Farr, R. (1987) ‘Social representations: A French tradition of research’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 17(4): 343–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farr, R. (1991) ‘Individualism as a Collective Representation’. In: Aebischer, V., Deconchy, J. and Lipiansky, E. M. eds. Idéologies et Représentations Sociales. Cousset (Fribourg): Delval.Google Scholar
  37. Foster, J. H. (2011) ‘Reflections on Bauer and Gaskell’s towards a paradigm for research on social representations’. Papers on Social Representations, 20(2): 23.1–23.12.Google Scholar
  38. Fraser, N. (1989) Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse, and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  39. Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  40. Gergen, K. (1991) The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  41. Gibson, S. and Hamilton, L. (2011) ‘The rhetorical construction of polity membership: Identity, culture and citizenship in young people’s discussions of immigration in Northern Ireland’. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21: 228–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gillespie, A. (2008) ‘Social representations, alternative representations and semantic barriers’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4): 375–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haste, H. (2004) ‘Constructing the citizen’. Political Psychology, 25(3): 413–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haste, H. (2012) ‘Where do we go from here in political psychology? An introduction by special issue editor’. Political Psychology, 33 (1): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hatemi, P. K. and McDermott, R. (2012) ‘Broadening political psychology’. Political Psychology, 33(1): 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holtz, P., Dahinden, J. and Wagner, W. (2013) ‘German Muslims and the “integration debate”: Negotiating identities in the face of discrimination’. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 47(2): 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Honneth, A. (1995) The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  48. Honwana, A. (2012) The Time of Youth: Work, Social Change, and Politics in Africa. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hopkins, N. and Blackwood, L. (2011) ‘Everyday citizenship: Identity and recognition’. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21: 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howarth, C. (2004) ‘Re-presentation and resistance in the context of school exclusion: Reasons to be critical’. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14: 356–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Howarth, C. (2006) ‘A social representation is not a quiet thing: Exploring the critical potential of social representations theory’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45: 65–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Howarth, C. (2009) ‘“I hope we won’t have to understand racism one day”: Researching or reproducing “Race” in Social psychological research?’ British Journal of Social Psychology, 48(3): 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Howarth, C. (2010) ‘Revisiting gender identities and education: Notes for a social psychology of resistant identities in modern culture’. Papers in Social Representations, 19(1): 8.1–8.17.Google Scholar
  54. Howarth, C. (2011) ‘Representations, Identity and Resistance in Communication’. In: Hook, D., Franks, B. and Bauer, M. eds. The Social Psychology of Communication. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  55. Howarth, C., Kessi, S., Wagner, W. and Sen, R. (2012) ‘The politics of moving beyond prejudice: A comment on Dixon, Levine, Reicher and Durrheim’. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6): 437–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Howarth, C., Wagner, W., Magnusson, N. and Sammut, G. (2013) ‘“It’s only other people who make me feel black”: Acculturation, identity and agency in a multicultural community’. Political Psychology, 35(1): 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Isin, E. F. (2009) ‘Citizenship in flux: The figure of the activist citizen’. Subjectivity, 29: 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Isin, E. F. and Wood, P. K. (1999) Citizenship and Identity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Jahoda, G. (1988) ‘Critical notes and reflections on “social representations”’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18(3): 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaspal, R. (2012) ‘“I never faced up to being gay”: Sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British South Asian gay men’. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 14(7): 767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jost, J. T. (2011) ‘System Justification Theory as Compliment, Complement, and Corrective to Theories of Social Identification and Social Dominance’. In: Dunning, D. ed. Social Motivation. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  62. Jost, J. T. and Banaji, M. R. (1994) ‘The role of stereotyping in system justification and the production of false consciousness’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R. and Nosek, B. A. (2004) ‘A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo’. Political Psychology, 25: 881–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jovchelovitch, S. (2007) Knowledge in Context. Representations, Community and Culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Kadianaki, I. (2010) ‘Making sense of immigrant identity dialogues’. Culture & Psychology, 16(3): 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kessi, S. (2011) ‘Photovoice as a practice of re-presentation and social solidarity: Experiences from a youth empowerment project in Dar es Salaam and Soweto’. Papers on Social Representations, 20: 1–27.Google Scholar
  67. Kohn, H. (1944) The Idea of Nationalism: A Study of Its Origins and Background. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  68. Kothari, U. (2006) ‘Critiquing “race” and racism on development discourse and practice’. Progress in Development Studies, 6(1): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kymlicka, W. (2010) ‘The rise and fall of multiculturalism? New debates on inclusion and accommodation in diverse societies’. International Social Science Journal, 199: 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Markova, I. (2000). ‘Ame’de’e or how to get rid of it: Social representations from a diaological Perspective’. Culture and Psychology, 6(4): 419–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marková, I. (2003) Dialogicality and Social Representations: The Dynamics of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Marková, I. (2008) ‘The epistemological significance of the theory of social representations’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38: 461–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marshall, T. H. (1964) Class, Citizenship and Social Development. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  74. Mead, G. H. (1934) Mind, Self, and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Milbrath, L. W. (1965) Political Participation: How and Why Do People Get Involved in Politics? Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  76. Mirza, H. S. and Reay, D. (2000) ‘Spaces and places of black educational desire: Rethinking black supplementary schools as a new social movement’. Sociology, 34(3): 521–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mkhize, N., Bennett, J., Reddy, V. and Moletsane, R. (2010) The Country We Want to Live in: Hate Crimes and Homophobia in the Lives of Black Lesbian South Africans. Cape Town: HSRC Press.Google Scholar
  78. Modood, T. (2010) Still Not Easy Being British: Struggles for a Multicultural Citizenship. London: Trentham Books.Google Scholar
  79. Moghaddam, F. M. (2008) Multiculturalism and Intergroup Relations: Implications for Democracy in Global Context. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moloney, G., Hall, R. and Walker, I. (2005) ‘Social representations and themata: The construction and functioning of social knowledge about donation and transplantation’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44: 415–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moloney, G., Williams, J. and Blair, D. (2012) ‘Cognitive polyphasia, themata and blood donation: Between or within representation’. Papers on Social Representations, 21: 2.1–2.12.Google Scholar
  82. Mondak, J. J. and Halperin, K. D. (2008) ‘A framework for the study of personality and political behavior’. British Journal of Political Science, 38(2): 335–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moscovici, S. (1961) La Psychanalyse, Son Image et Son Public. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  84. Moscovici, S. (1976) La psychanalyse, son image et son public (2. e’d. entie’rement refondue. ed.). Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  85. Moscovici, S. (1985) ‘Social Influence and Conformity’. In: Gardner, L. and Aronson, E. eds. Handbook of Social Psychology (3rd edition). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  86. Moscovici, S. (1988) ‘Notes towards a description of social representations’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18: 211–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moscovici, S. (1998) ‘The History and Actuality of Social Representations’. In: Flick, U. ed. The Psychology of the Social. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Moscovici, S. (2000a) ‘The Phenomenon of Social Representations’. In: Duveen, G. ed. Social Representations: Explorations in Social Psychology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  89. Moscovici, S. and Vignaux, G. (1994) ‘Le Concept de Thêmata’. In: Guimelli, C. ed. Structures et Transformations des Représentations Sociales. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Niestlé.Google Scholar
  90. Nash, K. (2001) ‘The “cultural turn” in social theory: Towards a theory of cultural politics’. Sociology, 35(1): 77–92.Google Scholar
  91. O’Connor, C., Rees, G. and Joffe, H. (2012) ‘Neuroscience in the public sphere’. Neuron, 74(2): 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. O’Sullivan-Lago, R. (2011) ‘“I think they’re just the same as us”: Building solidarity across the self/other divide’. Papers on Social Representations, 20 (1.3): 1–27.Google Scholar
  93. O’Toole, T. and Gale, R. (2010) ‘Contemporary grammars of political action among ethnic minority young activists’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(1): 126–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Toole, T., Lister, M., Marsh, D., Jones, S. and McDonagh, A. (2003) ‘Tuning out or left out? Participation and non-participation among young people’. Contemporary Politics, 9: 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Phelps, J. and Nadim, M. (2010) ‘Ideology and agency in ethnic identity negotiation of immigrant youth’. Papers on Social Representations, 19(1): 13.1–13.7.Google Scholar
  96. Phillips, A. (2009) Multiculturalism without Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Philogène, G. (2007) ‘Social Representations of Alterity in the United States’. In: Moloney, G. and Walker, I. eds. Social Representations and identity: Content, Process, and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  98. Potter, J. and Linton, I. (1985) ‘Some problems underlying the theory of social representations’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 24: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Provencher, C. (2011) ‘Towards a better understanding of cognitive polyphasia’. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 41 (4): 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Psaltis, C. (2005) ‘Communication and the construction of knowledge or transmission of belief: The role of conversation type, behavioral style and social recognition’. Studies in Communication Sciences, 5(2): 209–228.Google Scholar
  101. Psaltis, C. and Duveen, G. (2006) ‘Social relations and cognitive development: The influence of conversation type and representations of gender’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36: 407–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Psaltis, C. and Duveen, G. (2007) ‘Conservation and conversation types: Forms of recognition and cognitive development’. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25: 79–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Purkhardt, C. (1993) Transforming Social Representations: A Social Psychology of Common Sense and Science. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. Rose, D., Efram, D., Gervais, M., Joffe, H., Jovchelovitch, S. and Morant, N. (1995) ‘Questioning consensus in social representations theory’. Papers on Social Representations, 4(2): 150–155.Google Scholar
  105. Rose, D. S. (1996) Representations of Madness on British Television: A Social Psychological Analysis. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of London, London.Google Scholar
  106. Sammut, G. and Bauer, M. (2011) ‘Social Influence: Modes and Modalities’. In: Hook, D., Franks, B. and Bauer, M. eds. The Social Psychology of Communication. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  107. Scuzzarello, S. (2012) ‘Migrants’ integration in Western Europe: Bridging social psychology and political science’. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 22: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Soysal, Y. N. (1994) Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  109. Staerklé, C. (2009) ‘Policy attitudes, ideological values and social representations’. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(6): 1096–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Staerklé, C., Clémence, A. and Spini, D. (2011) ‘Social representations: A normative and dynamic intergroup approach’. Political Psychology, 32(5): 759–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stott, C. and Reicher, S. (2012) Mad Mobs and English Men. London: Constable & Robinson.Google Scholar
  112. Subašić, E., Reynolds, K., Reicher, S. and Klandermans, B. (2012) ‘Where to from here for the psychology of social change? Future directions for theory and practice’. Political Psychology, 33(1): 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tajfel, H. (1981) Human Groups and Social Categories: Studies in Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Thompson, J. B. (1990) Ideology and Modern Culture: Critical Social Theory in the Era of Mass Communication. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  115. Uhlaner, C. J. (2001) ‘Political Participation’. In: Smelser, N. J. and Baltes, P. B. eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  116. Vertovec, S. (2007). ‘Super-diversity and its implications’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6): 1024–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) ‘Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes’. In: Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S. and Souberman, E. eds. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Wieviorka, M. (2005) ‘After new social movements’. Social Movement Studies, 4(1): 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Caroline Howarth, Eleni Andreouli and Shose Kessi 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Howarth
  • Eleni Andreouli
  • Shose Kessi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations