Political Psychology of European Integration

  • Ian Manners
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Psychology Series book series (PSPP)

Abstract

Writing over two decades ago, Stuart Hall (1991) first told the story of European identity as contradictory processes of marking symbolic boundaries and constructing symbolic frontiers between inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness, which are central to any account of the political psychology of European integration. The study of European integration has come a long way in the intervening decades, but no systematic attempt has been made to weave the stories of European identity together with those of European integration using political psychology. Given that marking inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness are both political and psychological processes, and this absence of engagement seems problematic.

Europe’s external relations with its others has been central to the European story since its inception, and remains so. The story of European identity is often told as if it had no exterior. But this tells us more about how cultural identities are constructed — as ‘imagined communities’, through the marking of difference with others — than it does about the actual relations of unequal exchange and uneven development through which a common European identity was forged. Now that a new Europe is taking shape, the same contradictory process of marking symbolic boundaries and constructing symbolic frontiers between inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness, is providing a silent accompaniment to the march to 1992.

(Hall, 1991: 18)

Keywords

Nickel Europe Turkey Arena Lost 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abele, A., Rupprecht, T. and Wojciszke, B. (2008) ‘The influence of success and failure on experiences of agency’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38: 436–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abele, A. and Wojciszke, B. (2007) ‘Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5): 751–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakan, D. (1966) The Duality of Human Existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  4. Bakhtin, M. (1982) Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Texas: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bar-On, D. (2001) ‘The silence of psychologists’. Political Psychology, 22(2): 331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billig, M. (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  7. Borocz, J. (2000) ‘The fox and the raven: The European Union and Hungary renegotiate the margins of “Europe”’. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 42(4): 847–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breakwell, G. M. and Lyons, E. eds. (1996) Changing European Identities: Social Psychological Analyses of Social Change. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  9. Busch, H.-J. (1993) ‘Was heißt “Unbehagen in der Kultur” heute bzw. was kann es im Rahmen einer kritischen politischen Psychologie heißen?’. Psyche, 47(4): 303–324.Google Scholar
  10. Busch, H.-J. (1999) ‘Klaus Horns Konzept einer “Kritischen politischen Psychologie”’. In: Busch, H.-J. and Schülein, J. A. eds. Psychosozial, 22. Jg., 75, Vol. I Politische Psychologie, pp. 25–39.Google Scholar
  11. Busch, H.-J. (2009) ‘The concept of subjectivity in the context of a critical political psychology’, Paper presented to the Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Political Psychology, Dublin.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, P. (2014) ‘“Godfather of multiculturalism” Stuart Hall dies aged 82’. The Guardian, 10 February.Google Scholar
  13. Calhoun, C. (2003) ‘The Democratic Integration of Europe: Interests, Identity, and the Public Sphere’. In: Berezin, M. and Schain, M. eds. Europe without Borders: Remapping Territory, Citizenship, and Identity in a Transnational Age. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Capelos, T. and Van Troost, D. (2012) ‘Reason, Passion, and Islam: The Impact of Emotionality and Values on Political Tolerance’. In: Flood, C., Hutchings, S., Miazhevich, G. and Nickels, H. eds. Political and Cultural Representations of Muslims: Islam in the Plural. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  15. Castano, E., Sacchi, S. and Hays Gries, P. (2003) ‘The perception of the other in international relations: Evidence for the polarizing effect of entitativity’. Political Psychology, 24(3): 449–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chryssochoou, X. (2000) ‘The representation(s) of a new superordinate category. Studying the stereotype of the European in the context of European Integration’. The European Psychologist, 5(4): 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cram, L. (2001) ‘Imaging the Union: A Case of Banal Europeanism?’. In: Wallace, H. ed. Interlocking Dimensions of European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  18. Cram, L. (2009) ‘Identity and European integration: Diversity as a source of integration’. Nations and Nationalism, 15(1): 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cram, L. (2009) ‘Introduction: Banal nationalism: European Union identity and national identities in synergy’. Nations and Nationalism, 15(1): 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deutsch, M. and Kinnvall, C. (2002) ‘What Is Political Psychology?’. In: Monroe, K. R. ed. Political Psychology. London: Lawrence Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Diez, T. and Manners, I. (2007) ‘Reflecting on Normative Power Europe’. In: Berenskoetter, F. and Williams, M. J. eds. Power in World Politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, C. (2010) ‘Who speaks? Discourse, the subject and the study of identity in international politics’. European Journal of International Relations, 17(2): 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Genna, G. (2009) ‘Positive country images, trust and public support for European integration’. Comparative European Politics, 7(2): 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giddens, A. (1979) Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  26. Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Guisan, C. (2005) ‘Winning the Peace: “Lost Treasure” of European Integration’. Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, 287: 453–470.Google Scholar
  28. Guisan, C. (2011) ‘From European coal and steel community to Kosovo: EU reconciliation and its discontents’. Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(3): 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guisan, C. (2012) A Political Theory of Identity in European Integration: Memory and Policies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Hall, S. (1991) ‘Europe’s other self’. Marxism Today, 35: 18–19.Google Scholar
  31. Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. eds. (2004) Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  32. Hobolt, S. B. (2005) ‘When Europe matters: The impact of political information on voting behaviour in EU referendums’. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 15(1): 85–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Houtum, H. van (2002) ‘Borders of comfort: Spatial economic bordering processes in and by the European Union’. Regional & Federal Studies, 12(4): 37–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Houtum, H. van and Boedeltje, F. (2009) ‘Europe’s shame: Death at the borders of the EU’. Antipode, 41(2): 226–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Houtum, H. van and Pijpers, R. (2007) ‘The European Union as a gated community: The two-faced border and immigration regime of the EU’. Antipode, 39(2): 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacobsen, K. (2013) ‘Why Freud matters: Psychoanalysis and international relations revisited’. International Relations, 27(4): 393–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jonas, E., Fritsche, I. and Greenberg, J. (2005) ‘Currencies as cultural symbols — An existential psychological perspective on reactions of Germans toward the Euro’. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(1): 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kille, K. and Scully, R. (2003) ‘Executive heads and the role of intergovernmental organizations: Expansionist leadership in the United Nations and the European Union’. Political Psychology, 24(1): 175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kinnvall, C. (1997) ‘Nationalism, religion and the search for chosen traumas: Comparing Sikh and Hindu identity constructions’, Paper presented to the 20th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology (ISPP), Krakow.Google Scholar
  40. Kinnvall, C. (2002) ‘Nationalism, religion and the search for chosen traumas: Comparing Sikh and Hindu identity constructions’. Ethnicities, 2(1): 79–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kinnvall, C. (2004) ‘Globalization and religious nationalism: Self, identity, and the search for ontological security’. Political Psychology, 25(5): 741–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kinnvall, C. (2006) Globalization and Religious Nationalism in India, the Search for Ontological Security. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Kinnvall, C. (2012) ‘European trauma: Governance and the psychological moment’. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 37(3): 266–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kinnvall, C. and Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2009) ‘Security, subjectivity and space in postcolonial Europe: Muslims in the diaspora’. European Security, 18(3): 305–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kinnvall, C. and Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2010) ‘The political psychology of (de)securitization: Place-making strategies in Denmark, Sweden, and Canada’. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28: 1051–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kinnvall, C. and Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2011) Political Psychology of Globalization: Muslims in the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klein, O., Licata, L., Azzi, A. and Durala, I. (2003) ‘“How European am I?”: Prejudice expression and the presentation of social identity’. Self and Identity, 2(3): 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kohli, M. (2000) ‘The battlegrounds of European identity’. European Societies, 2(2): 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kristeva, J. (1982) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kristeva, J. (1991) Strangers to Ourselves. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kristeva, J. (1998) ‘Europhilia, europhobia’. Constellations, 5(3): 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kristeva, J. (2000) ‘Europe Divided: Politics, Ethics, Religion’. In: Kristeva, J. ed. Crisis of the European Subject. New York: Other Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lacan, J. (1981) The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  54. Laffan, B. (1992) Integration and Co-operation in Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Laffan, B. (1996) ‘The politics of identity and political order in Europe’. Journal of Common Market Studies, 34(1): 81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laffan, B. (2004) ‘The European Union and Its Institutions as “Identity Builders”’. In: Herrmann, R., Risse, T. and Brewer, M. eds. Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  57. Manners, I. (2001) The ‘Difference Engine’: Constructing and Representing the International Identity of the European Union. Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI), Working Paper 40/2001.Google Scholar
  58. Manners, I. (2002) European [security] Union: From Existential Threat to Ontological Security. Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI) Working Paper 5-2002.Google Scholar
  59. Manners, I. (2003) ‘European studies’. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 11(1): 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Manners, I. (2006a) ‘European Union, Normative Power and Ethical Foreign Policy’. In: Chandler, D. and Heins, V. eds. Rethinking Ethical Foreign Policy: Pitfalls, Possibilities and Paradoxes. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Manners, I. (2006b) ‘The European Union as a normative power: A response to Thomas Diez’. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 35(1): 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Manners, I. (2006c) ‘L’identité internationale de l’Union européenne: un pouvoir normatif dans le jeu politique mondial’. In: Adam, B. ed. Europe, puissance tranquille? Rôle et identité sur la scène mondiale. Brussels: Editions Complexe.Google Scholar
  63. Manners, I. (2007) ‘Another Europe Is Possible: Critical Perspectives on European Union Politics’. In: Jørgensen, K. E., Pollack, M. and Rosamond, B. eds. Handbook of European Union Politics. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  64. Manners, I. (2011) ‘Symbolism in European integration’. Comparative European Politics, 9(3): 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Manners, I. (2013a) ‘European communion: Political theory of European union’. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(4): 473–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manners, I. (2013b) ‘European [security] Union: Bordering and governing a secure Europe in a better world?’. Global Society, 27(3): 398–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Manners, I. and Whitman, R. (2003) ‘The “difference engine”: Constructing and representing the international identity of the European Union’. Journal of European Public Policy, 10(3): 380–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mitzen, J. (2006) ‘Anchoring Europe’s civilizing identity: Habits, capabilities, and ontological security’. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2): 270–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mitzen, J. (2013) Power in Concert: The Nineteenth-Century Origins of Global Governance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mullender, R. (2006) ‘Two nomoi and a clash of narratives: The story of the United Kingdom and the European Union’. Issues in Legal Scholarship, 6(1): 1–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Müller-Peters, A., Pepermans, R. and Kiell, G. eds. (1998) The Psychology of the European Monetary Union: A Cross-National Study of Attitudes Towards the Euro. Cologne/Brussels: University of Cologne/Free University of Brussels.Google Scholar
  72. Müller-Peters, A., Pepermans, R. and Burgoyne, C. eds. (1998) ‘European integration, psychology and the euro’. Special issue of Journal of Economic Psychology, 19(6): 657–802.Google Scholar
  73. Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2003) ‘Margins of difference: Constructing critical political psychology’. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 37(2): 239–252.Google Scholar
  74. Nesbitt-Larking, P. and Kinnvall, C. (2012) ‘The discursive frames of political psychology’. Political Psychology, 33(1): 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nykänen, J. (2011) ‘A Bakhtinian approach to EU-Turkey relations’. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 19(4): 501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Post, J. (2013) ‘Psychobiography: “The Child Is the Father of the Man”’. In: Huddy, L., Sears, D. and Levy, J. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Schafer, J. (2013) ‘European commission officials’ policy attitudes’. Journal of Common of Market Studies, 1–17. Online early view.Google Scholar
  78. Todorov, T. (1984) Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogical Principle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  79. Todorov, T. (2005) The New World Disorder: Reflections of a European. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  80. Todorov, T. (2008) ‘European Identity’. South Central Review, 25(3): 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ward, D. (2002) ‘Political Psychology: Origins and Development’. In: Monroe, K. ed. Political Psychology. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ian Manners 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Manners

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations