Group-Focused Enmity: Prevalence, Correlations and Causes of Prejudices in Europe

  • Beate Küpper
  • Andreas Zick
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Political Psychology Series book series (PSPP)


The present chapter builds upon European and North American traditions in the study of racism, ethnocentrism and prejudice. In the tradition of studies in prejudice, Social Identity, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Authoritarianism, the chapter profiles a new concept of antagonism towards out-groups, a syndrome of Group-Focused Enmity (GFE; Heitmeyer, 2002; Zick et al., 2008, 2011). We will examine patterns of prejudice in Europe, discussing the concept and then present an empirical test of the interrelatedness of different types of prejudice. We report on the prevalence of different types of prejudice and test a range of factors commonly cited to explain the devaluation of out-groups. Our data on prejudice towards immigrants, Jews, Muslims, ethnic minorities, women, homosexual and homeless people as well as people with disabilities was collected in a cross-cultural European survey conducted in 2008 in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal. This approach offers a new understanding of the facets and roots of prejudices in Europe at the beginning of the twenty-first century.


European Union Disable People Relative Deprivation Homeless People Social Dominance Orientation 


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© Beate Küpper and Andreas Zick 2014

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  • Beate Küpper
  • Andreas Zick

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