Crime, Misconduct, and Dysfunctions in and by Associations

  • Sharon Eng
  • David H. Smith
  • Abdulnabi H. Al-Ekry
  • Eleanor L. Brilliant
  • Gianfranco Farruggia
  • Lisa Faulkner
  • Benny Subianto


Scholars in the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Studies field (voluntaristics; Smith 2013) have seriously neglected the scientific study of the Dark Side of the nonprofit sector, defined as crime, deviance, misconduct, and dysfunctions. This chapter examines the Dark Side as it applies to membership associations (MAs), and to a lesser extent as it applies to MA volunteers, paid staff, and nonprofit agencies. We focus on two radically different kinds of MAs: (1) the conventional (mainstream) MA and (2) the fundamentally deviant voluntary association (DVA). A typology of DVAs is presented, plus case examples.We discuss the causes of deviance and misconduct in MAs, deviance by volunteers and employees, dysfunctions and inefficiencies in MAs, the regulatory environment, and responses by civil society organizations to deviance at different territorial levels.


Life Satisfaction Social Capital Positive Affect Voluntary Action Positive Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon Eng
    • 1
  • David H. Smith
    • 2
  • Abdulnabi H. Al-Ekry
    • 3
  • Eleanor L. Brilliant
    • 4
  • Gianfranco Farruggia
    • 5
  • Lisa Faulkner
    • 6
  • Benny Subianto
    • 7
  1. 1.USA
  2. 2.USA
  3. 3.Bahrain
  4. 4.USA
  5. 5.Italy
  6. 6.UK
  7. 7.Indonesia

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