Transnational Associations and INGOs: Macro-Associations

  • Thomas R. Davies
  • Hans P. Schmitz
  • Susan Appe
  • Daniel Barragan-Teran
  • Bonfas Owinga
  • Paloma G. Raggo
  • XIE Lei


Taking international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) as the key focus, this chapter outlines the history and nature of transnational voluntary associations before proceeding to evaluate the recent transformation of their organizational forms and their shifting geographical distribution. We argue that the traditional, hierarchical model of a Western-headquartered INGO is being increasingly challenged by new, decentralized organizational forms based in multiple world regions. The chapter then considers transnational associations’ practices, exploring their advocacy and service roles and mechanisms for evaluating their effectiveness. The proposition that transnational associations have contributed toward developing global civil society and enhancing global democracy is then considered, before proceeding to an evaluation of their legitimacy and accountability, which have become increasingly central to the research agenda. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research.


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© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas R. Davies
    • 1
  • Hans P. Schmitz
    • 2
  • Susan Appe
    • 3
  • Daniel Barragan-Teran
    • 4
  • Bonfas Owinga
    • 5
  • Paloma G. Raggo
    • 6
  • XIE Lei
    • 7
  1. 1.UK
  2. 2.Germany
  3. 3.USA
  4. 4.Ecuador
  5. 5.Kenya
  6. 6.Canada
  7. 7.China

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