National and Other Supra-Local Associations: Meso-Associations

  • David H. Smith
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
  • WU Fengshi


This chapter situates national associations (NAs) in history, indicating that they mainly accompanied the rise of nation-states in the mid-19th century and thereafter. NAs arose as part of the organizational revolution occasioned by the Industrial Revolution and its sequelae. This was the third, global, associational and economic revolution in human history, according to Smith (2016). NAs could only afford to exist and function when governments and businesses had made huge investments in various necessary technology, communication, and transportation systems, as indicated in the association prevalence model of Smith (Smith and Shen 2002). After some relevant definitions, major topics reviewed include formation, life cycles, and the demise of NAs; goals, purposes, and incentives; national sample studies of NAs (especially in the United States); internal structures and processes; environmental relations and exchanges; deviance and misconduct; and individual involvement. Usable knowledge, future trends, and research needed are suggested.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, Andrew. 1983. The System of Professions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, Howard E. 1979. Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldrich, Howard E., and Jeffrey Pfeffer 1976. “Environments of Organizations.” Annual Review of Sociology 2:79–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, William Sheridan. 1984. The Nazi Seizure of Power, Revised edition. New York: Franklin Watts.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, Jennifer, Adam Newmark, Virginia Gray, and David Lowery. 2004. “Mayflies and Old Bulls: Organization Persistence in State Interest Communities.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 4(2):140–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andrews, Kenneth T., and Bob Edwards. 2005. “The Organizational Structure of Local Environmentalism.” Mobilization 10(2):213–234.Google Scholar
  8. Anheier, Helmut K. 1987. “Indigenous Voluntary Associations, Nonprofits, and Development in Africa.” Pp. 416–433 in The Nonprofit Sector, edited by W. W. Powell. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Aptheker, Herbert. 1989. Abolitionism: A Revolutionary Movement. Boston, MA: Twayne.Google Scholar
  10. Atlas, John. 2010. Seeds of Change: The Story of ACORN, America’s Most Controversial Antipoverty Community Organizing Group. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Baggett, Jerome P. 2001. Habitat for Humanity: Building Private Homes, Building Pubic Religion. Philadelphia, PA: temple University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Barber, Bernard. 1987 [1950]. “Participation and Mass Apathy in Associations.” Pp. 477–504 in Studies in Leadership, editor, A. W. Gouldner. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  13. Beito, David T. 2000. From Mutual Aid to the Welfare State: Fraternal Societies and Social Services, 1890–1967. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bibby, John F., and Thomas M. Holbrook. 1996. “Interest Groups in the States.” Pp. 122–158 in Politics in the American States, edited by V. Gray and H. Jacob, 6th edition. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bickley, Ancella R. 1979. History of the West Virginia State Teachers’ Association. Washington, DC: National Education Association of the USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair, Karen J. 1994. The Torchbearers: Women & Their Amateur Arts Associations in America, 1890–1930. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Blumberg, Rhoda L. 1991. Civil Rights: The 1960s Freedom Struggle, Revised edition. New York: Twayne.Google Scholar
  18. Bonnett, Clarence E. 1956. History of Employers’ Associations in the United States. New York: Vantage Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bottoms, Bill. 1991. The VFW: An Illustrated History of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.Google Scholar
  20. Boulding, Kenneth E. 1953. The Organizational Revolution. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  21. Boyle, Patrick. 1994. Scout’s Honor. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Bresler, Robert J. 2004. Freedom of Association: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  23. Brulle, Robert, Liesel H. Turner, Jason Carmichael, and J. Craig Jenkins. 2007. “Measuring Social Movement Organization Populations: A Comprehensive Census of U.S. Environmental Movement Organizations.” Mobilization 12(3):255–270.Google Scholar
  24. Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Alastair Smith. 2011. The Dictator’s Handbook. New York: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
  25. Bush, Richard. 1992. “Survival of the Nonprofit Spirit in a For-Profit World.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 21(4):391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carmichael, Jason T., J. Craig Jenkins, and Robert J. Brulle. 2012. “Building Environmentalism: The Founding of Environmental Movement Organizations in the United States, 1900–2000.” Sociological Quarterly 53(3):422–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charles, Jeffrey A. 1993. Service Clubs in American Society: Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  28. Clemens, Elisabeth S., and Debra C. Minkoff. 2007. “Beyond the Iron Law: Rethinking the Place of Organizations in Social Movement Research.” Pp. 155–170 in The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, edited by D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, and H. Kriesi. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dalton, Russell J. 1994. The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Davidson, Walter J. 1950. History of the American National Red Cross, Vol. 39, General Organization. Washington, DC: American National Red Cross.Google Scholar
  31. Davis-Smith, Justin, Colin Rochester, and Rodney Hedley. 1995. An Introduction to the Voluntary Sector. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Day, Christine L. 1999. “Grassroots Involvement in Interest Group Decision-Making.” American Politics Research 27(2):216–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Delgado, Gary. 1986. Organizing the Movement: The Roots and Growth of ACORN. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Domhoff, G. William. 1974. Bohemian Grove and Other Retreats. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  35. Domhoff, G. William. 1975. “Social Clubs, Policy-Planning Groups, and Corporations: A Network Study of Ruling-Class Cohesiveness.” Critical Sociology 5(3):171–184.Google Scholar
  36. Domhoff, G.William. 1983. Who Rules America Now? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Domhoff, G. William. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics, and Social Change, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  38. Donovan, Todd, Daniel A. Smith, and Christopher Z. Mooney. 2012. State and Local Politics, 3rd edition. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  39. Dubbs, Jeremiah M. 2009. “A Matter of Faith: Goal Congruence, Accountability, and Organizational Capacity in the Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in Arkansas.” Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, Unpublished PhD dissertation.Google Scholar
  40. Dunlap, Riley E., and Angela G. Mertig. 1992. American Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement, 1970–1990. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  41. Ellis, Susan J. and Katherine H. Noyes. 1990. By the People: A History of Americans as Volunteers, Revised edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Erikson, Robert S., Gerald C. Wright, and John P. McIver. 1994. Statehouse Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Etzioni, Amitai. 1975. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations, Revised edition. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  44. Fagan, Adam. 2004. Environment and Democracy in the Czech Republic. The Environmental Movement in the Transition Process. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  45. Finke, Roger, and Rodney Stark. 2005. The Churching of America, 1776–2005: Winners and Losers in Our Religious Economy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Fischer, Conan. 1995. The Rise of the Nazis. New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Fisher, Allon 1974. “Associational Life in the People’s Republic of China.” Pp. 3–14 in Voluntary Action Research: 1974. The Nature of Voluntary Action Around the World, edited by D. H. Smith. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  48. Fisk, Margaret, ed. 1972. Encyclopedia of Associations, 7th edition. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co.Google Scholar
  49. Fisk, Margaret, ed. 1976. Encyclopedia of Associations, 9th edition. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co.Google Scholar
  50. Ford, Linda G. 1991. Iron-Jawed Angels: The Suffrage Militancy of the NationalWoman’s Party 1912–1920. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  51. Freeman, John H., and Michael T. Hannan. 1975. “Growth and Decline Processes in Organizations.” American Sociological Review 40:215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fremont-Smith, Marion R. 2004. “Pillaging of Charitable Assets: Embezzlement and Fraud.” The Exempt Organization Tax Review (special report) 46(3):333–346.Google Scholar
  53. Fremont-Smith, Marion R. and A. Kosaras. 2003 “Wrongdoing by Officers and Directors of Charities: A Survey of Press Reports 1995–2002.” Working Paper No. 20. Cambridge, MA: The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations, The Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  54. Galenson,Walter. 1976. Trade Union Democracy in Europe.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  55. Galenson, Walter. 1994. Trade Union Growth and Decline. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  56. Gall, Gregor, and Tony Dundon, eds. 2013. Global Anti-Unionism. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Gall, Gregor, Adrian Wilkinson, and Richard Hurd, eds. 2012. The International Handbook of Labour Unions. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  58. Gamm, Gerald, and Robert D. Putnam. 1999. “The Growth of Voluntary Associations in America, 1840–1940.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 29(4):511–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gamson, William A. 1990. The Strategy of Social Protest, 2nd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  60. Gamwell, Franklin I. 1984. Beyond Preference: Liberal Theories of Independent Association. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  61. Gaustad, Edwin S., and Leigh E. Schmidt. 2002. The Religious History of America. Revised edition. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  62. Gibelman, Margaret, and Sheldon R. Gelman. 2001. “Very Public Scandals; An Analysis of how and why Nongovernmental Organizations get in Trouble.” Voluntas 12(1):49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gilbo, Patrick F., ed. 1981. The American Red Cross: The First Century. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  64. Glaser, John S. 1994. The United Way Scandal: An Insider’s Account of What Went Wrong and Why. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Goldfield, Michael. 1989. The Decline of Organized Labor in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  66. Goldman, Lawrence. 2007. Science, Reform, and Politics in Victorian Britain: The Social Science Association 1857–1866. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Gray, Jerome, Joe L. Reed, and Norman W. Walton. 1987. History of the Alabama State Teachers Association. Washington, DC: National Education Association of the USA.Google Scholar
  68. Greeley, Andrew. 1972. The Denominational Society. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  69. Greenlee, Janet, M. Fischer, T. Gordon, and E. Keating. 2007. “An Investigation of Fraud in Nonprofit Organizations: Occurrences and Deterrents.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36(4):676–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gusfield, Joseph R. 1986. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement. Champaign-Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hall, Peter D. 1982. The Organization of American Culture, 1700–1900: Private Institutions, Elites, and the Origins of American Nationality. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Hallenstvedt, Abraham. 1974. “Formal Voluntary Associations in Norway.” Pp. 213–227 in Voluntary Action Research: 1974, edited by D. H. Smith. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  73. Hannan, Michael T., and Glenn R. Carroll. 1992. Dynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Legitimation, and Competition. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Hannan, Michael T., and John Freeman. 1977. “The Population Ecology of Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 82:929–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hannan, Michael T., and John Freeman. 1988. “The Ecology of Organizational Mortality: American Labor Unions, 1836–1985.” American Journal of Sociology 94:25–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hannan, Michael T., and John Freeman. 1989. Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Hansmann, Henry B. 1980. “The Role of Nonprofit Enterprise.” Yale Law Journal 89:835–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hatch, Mary Jo. 1997. Organization Theory. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hawkins, Hugh. 1992. Banding Together: The Rise of National Associations in American Higher Education, 1887–1950. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Heinrich, V. Finn, and Lorenzo Fioramonti, eds. 2008. CIVICUS Global Survey of the State of Civil Society. Vol. 2: Comparative Perspectives. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  81. Heurlin, Christopher. 2010. “Governing Civil Society: The Political Logic of NGO-State Relations Under Dictatorship.” Voluntas 21:220–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Holtman, A. G. 1983. “A Theory of Non-Profit Firms.” Economica 50:439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Houghland, Paul. 1998. The History of the National Harwood Lumber Association, 1898– 1998. Marceline, MO: Walsworth Pub Co.Google Scholar
  84. Howard, Marc M. 2003. TheWeakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hunter, Floyd. 1969. Community Power Structure: A Study of Decision Makers. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  86. Inazu, John D. 2012. Freedom’s Refuge: The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  87. James, Estelle. 1983. “How Nonprofits Grow: A Model.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2:350–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Johnson, Erik W. 2014. “Toward International Comparative Research on Associational Activity: Variations in the Form and Focus of Voluntary Associations in Four Nations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 43(2S):163S–181S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jones, Gilbert. 2007. Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle Against Racism in America, 1909–1969. New edition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Kalleberg, Arne L., David Knoke, Peter V. Marsden, and Joe L. Spaeth. 1996. Organizations in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  91. Kaufman, Christopher J. 1982. Faith and Fraternalism: The History of the Knights of Columbus, 1882–1982. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  92. Kaufman, Jason A. 2002. For the Common Good? American Civic Life in the Golden Age of Fraternity. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Kimberly, John R., and Robert A. Miles and Associates. 1980. The Organizational Life Cycle. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  94. Knoke, David. 1988. “Incentive in Collective Action Organizations.” American Sociological Review 53:311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Knoke, David. 1990. Organizing for Collective Action. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  96. Knoke, David. 1998. “Who Steals My Purse Steals Trash: The Structure of Organizational Influence Reputation.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 10(4):507–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Knopf, S. Adolphus (Sigard Adolphus). 1880. A History of the National Tuberculosis Association;: The Anti-tuberculosis Movement in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library.Google Scholar
  98. Kurlantzick, Joshua. 2013. Democracy in Retreat. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Ladda, Shawn. 2009. “The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport: 110 Years of Promoting Social Justice and Change.” Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 80(7):48–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Laumann, Edward O., and David Knoke. 1987. The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  101. Lawrence, P. R., and J. W. Lorsch. 1967. Organization and Environment. Boston, MA: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  102. Lieberson, Stanley, and Irving L. Allen, Jr. 1963. “Location of National Headquarters of Voluntary Associations.” Administrative Science Quarterly 8(3):316–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lipset, Seymour M., Martin Trow, and James Coleman. 1977 [1956]. Union Democracy. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  104. Ma, Qiusha. 2005. Non-Governmental Organizations in Contemporary China: Paving the Way to Civil Society? New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. Macleod, David I. 1983. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  106. Malcolmson, Patricia, and Robert Malcolmson. 2013. Women at the Ready: The Remarkable Story of the Women’s Voluntary Services on the Home Front. London: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  107. Martin, David, and Phyllis Johnson. 1981. The Struggles for Zimbabwe: The Chimurenga War. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  108. Martin, Paul. 1991. We Serve: A History of the Lions Clubs. Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway.Google Scholar
  109. McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency 1930–1970. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  110. McConnell, Stuart. 1992. Glorious Contentment: The Grand Army of the Republic, 1865–1900. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  111. McFarland, Andrew S. 1984. Common Cause: Lobbying in the Public Interest. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  112. Meyer, Marshall W., and Associates. 1978. Environments and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  113. Michels, Robert. [1915] 1959. Political Parties; a Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  114. Miller-Stevens, K. L. 2010. “State Nonprofit Associations and Agenda Setting: An Exploratory Study of Lobbying Strategies.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  115. Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Minkoff, Debra C. 1995. Organizing for Equality: The Evolution ofWomen’s and Racial-Ethnic Organizations in America, 1955–1985. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Minkoff, Debra C. 1999. “Bending with the Wind: Strategic Change and Adaptation by Women’s and Racial Minority Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 104 1666– 1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Moncrief, Gary, and Peverill Squire. 2013. Why States Matter: An Introduction to State Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  119. Moore, Gwen. 1979. “The Structure of a National Elite Network.” American Sociological Review 44(5):673–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Morris, Aldon D. 1984. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  121. Morris, Charles R. 1996. The AARP: America’s Most Powerful Lobby and the Clash of Generations. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  122. Morrison, Denton E., ed. 1970. Farmers’ Organizations and Movements. East Lansing, MI: Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State University, Research Bulletin 24.Google Scholar
  123. Muraskin, William A. 1975. Middle-Class Blacks in a White Society Prince Hall Freemasonry in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  124. Musick, Marc A., and Wilson, John. 2008. Volunteers: A Social Profile. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Nall, Frank C. 1967. “National Associations.” Chapter 8 in The Emergence of American Society, edited by W. L. Warner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  126. National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA. 2011. Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches. 2011. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
  127. National Association of Democratic Clubs. 2012. National Association of Democratic Clubs: Organized 1888 – July 4. Charleston, SC: Nabu PressGoogle Scholar
  128. National Education Association of the United States. 1892. History of the National Educational Association of the United States: Its Organization and Functions. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Library.Google Scholar
  129. Nicholson, James R., Lee A. Donaldson, and Raymond C. Dobson. 1978. History of the Order of Elks, 1868–1978, Revised edition. Chicago, IL: Grand Secretary’s Office.Google Scholar
  130. Nolan, Patrick, and Gerhard Lenski. 2006. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  131. O’Donnell, Gillermo, and Philippe C. Schmitter. T. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Ostrogorski, Moisei. 1964. Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties. Vol. 1: England. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  134. Padgett, John F., and Walter W. Powell. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Pelling, Henry. 1960. American Labor. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  136. Pelling, Henry. 1963. A History of British Trade Unionism. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  137. Perrow, Charles. 1961. “Organizational Prestige: Some Functions and Dysfunctions.” American Journal of Sociology 66:335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  139. Pope, Norman J., and Joe Homberger. 1975. The History of the National Association of Postmasters 1898 – 1975 with Special Emphasis Given to the Years of 1964 – 1975. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Postmasters.Google Scholar
  140. Pospíšilová, Tereza. 2011. Dobrovolnictví v České republice před rokem 1989 a po něm: diskurzy, definice, aktualizace [Volunteering in the Czech Republic Before and Post-1989: Discourses, Definitions, Actualizations]. Sociologický časopis/Czech Sociological Review 47 (5):887–910.Google Scholar
  141. Presthus, Robert V. 1965. The Organizational Society. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  142. Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ridder, Paul. 1979. “Processes of Power Formation in Self-Administered (Voluntary) Associations.” Kölner Zeitschrift fur Sozilogie und Sozialpsychlogie 31(2):256–266.Google Scholar
  144. Ridge John T. 1986. Erin’s Sons in America: The Ancient Order of Hibernians. New York: AOH Publications.Google Scholar
  145. Rosenfeld, Jake. 2014. What Unions No Longer Do. New York: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rosenthal, Michael. 1986. Character Factory: Baden-Powell’s Boy Scouts and the Imperatives of Empire. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  147. Ruffner, Frederick G. 1968. Encyclopedia of Associations, 5th edition. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company.Google Scholar
  148. Rumer, Thomas A. 1990. The American Legion: An Official History, 1919–1989. New York: M. Evans.Google Scholar
  149. Salamon, Lester M., S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Associates. 2004. Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector. Vol. 2. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  150. Schlozman, Kay L., and John Tierney. 1986. Organized Interests and American Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  151. Schlozman, Kay L., Sidney Verba, and Henry E. Brady. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schmidt, Alvin J. 1973. Oligarchy in Fraternal Organizations. Detroit, MI: Gale Research.Google Scholar
  153. Schmidt, Alvin J. 1980. Fraternal Organizations. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  154. Schmidt, Alvin J., and Nicholas Babchuk. 1972. “Formal Voluntary Groups and Change Over Time: A Study of Fraternal Associations.” Journal of Voluntary Action Research (now Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly) 1(1):46–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schneider, Benjamin, and Karen Barbera. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schofer, Evan, and Wesley Longhofer. 2011. “The Structural Sources of Association.” American Journal of Sociology 117(2):539–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Scott, Anne F. 1991. Natural Allies: Women’s Associations in American History. Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  158. Scott, David C., and BrendanMurphy. 2010. The Scouting Party: Pioneering and Preservation, Progressivism and Preparedness in the Making of the Boy Scouts of America. Garland, TX: Red Honor Press.Google Scholar
  159. Scott, W. Richard, and Gerald F. Davis. 2003. Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  160. Service, Elman R. 1975. Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  161. Silber, Norman I. 2001. A Corporate Form of Freedom: The Emergence of the Nonprofit Sector. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  162. Sills, David L. 1957. The Volunteers: Means and Ends in a National Organization. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.Google Scholar
  163. Singer, M.I., and J. A. Yankey. 1991. “Organizational Metamorphosis: A Study of 18 Nonprofit Mergers, Acquisitions, and Consolidations.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 1:357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Skeldon, Ronald. 1977. “Regional Associations: A Note on Opposed Interpretations.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 19:506–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Skocpol, Theda. 1999. “How Americans Became Civic.” Pp. 27–80 in Civic Engagement in American Democracy, edited by T. Skocpol and M. P. Fiorina.Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  167. Skocpol, Theda. 2003. Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  168. Skocpol, Theda, and Fiorina, Morris P., eds. 1999. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  169. Skocpol, Theda, Marshall Ganz, and Ziad Munson. 2000. “A Nation of Organizers: The Institutional Origins of Civic Voluntarism in the United States.” American Political Science Review 94(3):527–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Smillie, Ian. 2009. Freedom from Want: The Remarkable Success Story of BRAC, the Global Grassroots Organization That’s Winning the Fight Against Poverty. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  171. Smith, David H. 1973. “Modernization and the Emergence of Voluntary Organizations.” Pp. 49–73 in Voluntary Action Research: 1973, edited by D. H. Smith. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
  172. Smith, David H., ed. 1974. Voluntary Action Research: 1974. The Nature of Voluntary Action around the World. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  173. Smith, David H. 1992. “National Nonprofit, Voluntary Associations: Some Parameters.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 21(1):81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Smith, David H. 1997. “The International History of Grassroots Associations.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 38(3–4):189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Smith, David H. 2000. Grassroots Associations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  176. Smith, David H. 2008. “Accepting and Understanding the ‘Dark Side’ of the Nonprofit Sector: One Key Part of Building a Healthier Civil Society.” Paper Presented at the Annual Conference of ARNOVA, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  177. Smith, David H. 2010. “Membership and Membership Associations.” Pp. 982–990 in International Encyclopedia of Civil Society, edited by H. K. Anheier, S. Toepler, and R. List. New York: Springer, 2010.Google Scholar
  178. Smith, David H. 2015a. “Voluntary Associations, Sociology of.” Pp. 252–260 in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, edited by J. D.Wright. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Smith, David H. 2015b. “Voluntary Organizations.” Pp. 261–267 in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol. 25, edited by J. D. Wright. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Smith, David H. (in press) 2016. “Four Global Associational Revolutions: Explaining Their Causes and Setting Straight the Socio-Historical Record.” Civil Society in Russia and Beyond (English translation of journal name, published in Russian, but this article is in English). 7.Google Scholar
  181. Smith, David H. (forthcoming) 2017a. The “Dark Energy” of the Nonprofit Sector: Noxious, Dissenting, and Eccentric Types of Deviant Voluntary Associations, Their Impacts, and How They Work. Bradenton, FL: David Horton Smith International.Google Scholar
  182. Smith, David H. (forthcoming) 2017b. “The Global, Historical and Contemporary Impacts of Voluntary Membership Associations on Human Societies.” Voluntaristics Review: Brill Research Perspectives 2(2).Google Scholar
  183. Smith, David H., and Burt R. Baldwin. 1974. “Voluntary Associations and Volunteering in the United States.” Pp. 277–305 in Voluntary Action Research: 1974, edited by D. H. Smith. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  184. Smith, David H., Burt R. Baldwin, and Eugene D. White. 1980. “The Non-Profit Sector.” Pp. 1–15 in The Non-Profit Organization Handbook, edited by T. D. Connors. New York: McGraw –Hill.Google Scholar
  185. Smith, David H., Burt R. Baldwin, and William O. Chittick. 1980. “U.S. Transnational Voluntary Organizations and International Development.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology XXI(3–4):10–25.Google Scholar
  186. Smith, David H., and Ce Shen. 2002. “The Roots of Civil Society: A Model of Voluntary Association Prevalence Applied to Data on Larger Contemporary Nations.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 42(2):93–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Smith, David H., Frans Verhagen, Burt R. Baldwin, and William Chittick. 1978. Role of U.S. NGOs in International Development Co-Operation. New York: UNITAR, United Nations.Google Scholar
  188. Smith, David H., Robert A. Stebbins, and Michael Dover. 2006. A Dictionary of Nonprofit Terms and Concepts. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Smith, David H., and Ting Zhao. 2016. “Review and Assessment of China’s Nonprofit Sector After Mao: ‘Emerging Civil Society’? Voluntaristics Review: Brill Research Perspectives 1(5):1–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Swanson, James M. 1974. “Non-Governmental Organizations in the USSR 1958–1973.” Pp. 69–86 in Voluntary Action Research: 1974. The Nature of Voluntary Action Around the World, edited by D. H. Smith. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  191. Taylor, Carl C. 1953. The Farmers’ Movement, 1620–1920. New York: American Book Company.Google Scholar
  192. Teets, Jessica C. 2014. Civil Society Under Authoritarianism: The China Model. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tolbert, Pamela S. and Richard H. Hall. 2010. Organizations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomes, 10th edition. New Delhi, India: PHI Learning Private Ltd.Google Scholar
  194. Thomas, Clive S., and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1996. “Interest Groups in the States.” Pp. 122–158 in Politics in the American States. 6th edition, edited by V. Gray and H. Jacob. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  195. Van Der Heijden, Heinz-Anton. 1999. “Environmental Movements, Ecological Modernisation, and Political Opportunity Structures.” Environmental Politics, 8(1):199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Voss, Kim, and Rachel Sherman. 2000. “Breaking the Iron Law of Oligarchy: Union Revitalization in the American Labor Movement.” American Journal of Sociology 106:303–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Wake-Walker, Edward. 2008. The Lifeboats Story: In Association with the RNLI. Phoenix Mill, Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  198. Walker, Edward T., John D. McCarthy, and Frank Baumgartner. 2011 “Replacing Members with Managers? Mutualism Among Membership and Membership Advocacy Organizations in the United States.” American Journal of Sociology 116(4):1284–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wang, Ming, ed. 2011. Emerging Civil Society in China, 1978–2008. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.Google Scholar
  200. Weisbrod, Burton A. 1988. The Nonprofit Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  201. Weisbrod, Burton A. 1992. “Tax Policy Toward Nonprofit Organizations: A Ten Country Survey.” Pp. 29–50 in The Nonprofit Sector in the Global Community: Voices from Many Nations, edited by K. D. McCarthy, V. A. Hodgkinson, and R. A. Sumariwalla. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  202. Wells, Mildred W. 1953. Unity in Diversity: The History of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs. Washington, DC: General Federation of Women’s Clubs.Google Scholar
  203. Wesley, Edgar Bruce. 1957. NEA: The First Hundred Years: The Building of the Teaching Profession. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  204. West, Allen M. 1980. The National Education Association. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  205. Wu, Fengshi. 2002. New Partners or Old Brothers? GONGOs in Transnational Environmental Advocacy in China. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center.Google Scholar
  206. Yates, Michael D. 2009. Why Unions Matter. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  207. Young, Dennis R. 1989. “Local Autonomy in a Franchise Age: Structural Change in National Voluntary Associations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 18(2):101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Young, Louise M. 1989. In the Public Interest: The League of Women Voters, 1920–1970. Westport, CT: Green wood Press.Google Scholar
  209. Young, Dennis R., Neil Bania, and Darlyne Bailey. 1996. “Structure and Accountability: A Study of National Nonprofit Associations.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 6(4):347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Zakin, Susan. 1993. Coyotes and Town Dogs: Earth First! and the Environmental Movement. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  211. Zald, Mayer N. 1970. Organizational Change: The Political Economy of the YMCA. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  212. Zander, Alvin. 1972. “The Purposes of National Associations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 1(4):20–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Smith
    • 1
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
    • 2
  • WU Fengshi
    • 3
  1. 1.USA
  2. 2.Czech Republic
  3. 3.China

Personalised recommendations