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National and Other Supra-Local Associations: Meso-Associations

  • David H. Smith
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
  • WU Fengshi

Abstract

This chapter situates national associations (NAs) in history, indicating that they mainly accompanied the rise of nation-states in the mid-19th century and thereafter. NAs arose as part of the organizational revolution occasioned by the Industrial Revolution and its sequelae. This was the third, global, associational and economic revolution in human history, according to Smith (2016). NAs could only afford to exist and function when governments and businesses had made huge investments in various necessary technology, communication, and transportation systems, as indicated in the association prevalence model of Smith (Smith and Shen 2002). After some relevant definitions, major topics reviewed include formation, life cycles, and the demise of NAs; goals, purposes, and incentives; national sample studies of NAs (especially in the United States); internal structures and processes; environmental relations and exchanges; deviance and misconduct; and individual involvement. Usable knowledge, future trends, and research needed are suggested.

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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Smith
    • 1
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
    • 2
  • WU Fengshi
    • 3
  1. 1.USA
  2. 2.Czech Republic
  3. 3.China

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